barcode project in vb.net Figure 7-24 DWDM channel separation in Software

Generator Code 39 Full ASCII in Software Figure 7-24 DWDM channel separation

Figure 7-24 DWDM channel separation
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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systems the channels are closely spaced and therefore do not experience significant attenuation variation from channel to channel. There is a significant maintenance issue that faces operators of DWDM-equipped networks. Consider a 16-channel DWDM system. This system has 16 lasers, one for each channel, which means that the service provider must maintain 16 spare lasers in case of a laser failure. The latest effort underway is the deployment of tunable lasers, which allow the laser to be tuned to any output wavelength, thus reducing the volume of spares that must be maintained and, by extension, the cost. So what do we find in a typical WDM system A variety of components, including multiplexers, which combine multiple optical signals for transport across a single fiber; demultiplexers, which disassemble the aggregate signal so that each signal component can be delivered to the appropriate optical receiver (PIN or APD); active or passive switches or routers, which direct each signal component in a variety of directions; filters, which serve to provide wavelength selection; and finally, optical adddrop multiplexers, which give the service provider the ability to pick up and drop off individual wavelength components at intermediate locations throughout the network. Together, these components make up the heart of the typical high-bandwidth optical network. And why is DWDM so important Because of the cost differential that exists between a DWDM-enhanced network and a traditional network. To expand network capacity today by putting more fiber in the ground costs, on average, about $70,000 per mile. To add the same bandwidth using DWDM by changing out the endpoint electronics costs roughly one-sixth that amount. There is clearly a financial incentive to go with the WDM solution.
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DWDM facilitates the transport of massive volumes of data from a source to a destination. Once the data arrives at the destination, however, it must be terminated and redirected to its final destination on a lambda-by-lambda basis. This is done with switching and routing technologies.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Switching versus Routing: What s the Difference
A review of these two fundamental technologies is probably in order. The two terms are often used interchangeably, and a never-ending argument is underway about the differences between the two. The answer lies in the lower layers of the now-famous OSI Protocol Model. You will recall that OSI is a conceptual model used to study the step-by-step process of transmitting data through a network. It comprises seven layers, the lower three of which define the domain of the typical service provider. These layers, starting with the lowest in the seven-layer stack, are the physical layer (layer one), the data link layer (layer two), and the network layer (layer three). Layer one is responsible for defining the standards and protocols that govern the physical transmission of bits across a medium. SONET and SDH are both physical layer standards. Switching, which lies at layer two (the data link layer) of OSI, is usually responsible for establishing connectivity within a single network. It is a relatively low-intelligence function and, therefore, is accomplished quite quickly. Such technologies as ATM, frame relay, and wireless access technologies such as FDMA, TDMA and CDMA, and LAN access control protocols (CSMA/CD, token passing) are found at this layer. Routing, on the other hand, is a layer three (network layer) function. It operates at a higher, more complex level of functionality and is, therefore, more complex. Routing concerns itself with the movement of traffic between subnetworks and therefore complements the efforts of the switching layer. ATM, frame relay, LAN protocols, and the PSTN are switching protocols; IPRIP, OSPF, and IPX are routing protocols.
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