barcode project in vb.net Figure 2-2 PC to mainframe communications in Software

Creator Code 3 of 9 in Software Figure 2-2 PC to mainframe communications

Figure 2-2 PC to mainframe communications
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ASCII codeset is shown in Table 2-1. Mainframes, however, use a different codeset called the Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC); the ASCII traffic must be converted to EBCDIC if the mainframe is to understand it, and vice versa, as shown in Figure 2-4.
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Table 2-1 ASCII-Decimal Conversion Table
Character 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F G
ASCII Value 0110000 0110001 0110010 0110011 0110100 0110101 0110110 0110111 0111000 0111001 1000001 1000010 1000011 1000100 1000101 1000110 1000111
Decimal Value 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
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Character H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ASCII Value 1001000 1001001 1001010 1001011 1001100 1001101 1001110 1001111 1010000 1010001 1010010 1010011 1010100 1010101 1010110 1010111 1011000 1011001 1011010 Decimal Value 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
Binary Arithmetic Review
It s probably not a bad idea to review binary arithmetic for just a moment, since it seems to be one of the least understood details of data communications. I promise, this will not be painful; I just want to offer a quick explanation of the numbering scheme and the various codesets that result. Modern computers are often referred to as digital computers because the values they use to perform their function have discrete values
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Figure 2-4 Code conversion
2
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Marseilles: 8-bit EBCDIC
(remember, the word digital means discrete ). Those values are nominally zero and one: In other words, a value can either be one or zero, on or off, positive or negative, presence of voltage or absence of voltage, presence of light or absence of light. There are two possible values for any given situation, and this type of system is called binary. The word means a system that comprises two distinct components or values. Computers operate using base two arithmetic, whereas humans use base ten. Let me take you back to second grade. When we count, we arrange our numbers in columns that have values based on multiples of the number ten, as shown in Figure 2-5. Here we see the number six thousand, seven hundred eighty-three, written using the decimal numbering scheme. We easily understand the number as it is written because we are taught to count in base ten from an early age. Computers, however, don t speak in base ten. Instead, they speak in base two. Instead of having columns that are multiples of ten, they use columns that are multiples of two, as shown in Figure 2-6. In base ten, the columns are (reading from the right):
Ones Tens Hundreds Thousands Ten thousands Hundred thousands Millions Etc.
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Thousands Tens
Figure 2-5 Base ten numbering scheme
Hundreds
Ones
In base two, the columns are
Ones Twos Fours Eights Sixteens Thirty-twos Sixty-fours One hundred twenty-eights Two hundred fifty-sixes Five hundred twelves One thousand twenty-fours Etc.
Figure 2-6 Base two numbering scheme
Five hundred twelves Two thousand forty-eights
One hundred twentyeights
Thirtytwos
Eights
Twos
One Two hundred Sixtyfours thousand fiftytwenty-fours sixes Four thousand ninety-sixes
Sixteens
Fours
Ones
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52 1101001111111
2
So our number, 6,783, would be written as follows in base two:
From right to left that s one 1, one 2, one 4, one 8, one 16, one 32, one 64, no 128s, no 256s, one 512, no 1,024s, one 1,048s, and one 4,096. Add them all up (1 2 4 8 16 32 64 512 2,048 4,096) and you should get 6,783. That s binary arithmetic. Most PCs today use the seven-bit ASCII character set shown in Table 2-1. The mainframe, however (remember the mainframe ), uses an eight-bit code called EBCDIC. What happens when a seven-bit ASCII PC sends information to an EBCDIC mainframe system that only understands eight-bit characters Clearly, problems would result. Something, therefore, has to take on the responsibility of translating between the two systems so that they can intelligibly transfer data between each other.
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