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Table 7-1 TCP/IP compared to OSI
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TCP/IP Protocol Stack Network Interface Layer Internet Layer Transport Layer Application Services Layer
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OSI Reference Model Physical and Data Link Layers (L1-2) Network Layer (L3) Transport Layer (L4) Session, Presentation, and Application Layers (L5-7)
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Figure 7-35 Simplified TCP/IP protocol stack
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7
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Application Services TCP/UDP IP Network Interface
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building block of the protocol, the IP packet, is designed to deal with all of these disparities, while TCP (and other related protocols, discussed later) take care of the QoS issues. Two network interface protocols are particularly important to TCP/IP. The Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) are used to provide data link layer services in situations in which no other data link protocol is present, such as in leased-line or older dialup environments. Most TCP/IP software packages for desktop applications include these two protocols, even though dial-up is rapidly fading into near-oblivion in the presence of growing levels of broadband access. With SLIP or PPP, a remote computer can attach directly to a host and connect to the Internet using IP rather than being limited to an asynchronous connection.
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Transport Technologies
Transport Technologies
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
PPP, as its name implies, was created for the governance of point-to-point links. It has the ability to manage a variety of functions at the moment of connection and verification, including password verification, IP address resolution, compression (where required), and encryption for privacy or security. It can also support multiple protocols over a single connection, an important capability for dial-up users who rely on IP or some other network layer protocol for routing and congestion control. It also supports inverse multiplexing and dynamic bandwidth allocation via the Multilink-PPP Protocol (ML-PPP), commonly used in ISDN environments where bandwidth supersets are required over the connection. The PPP frame (see Figure 7-36) is similar to a typical HDLC frame, with delimiting flags, an address field, a protocol identification field, information and pad fields, and a frame-check sequence for error control.
The Internet Layer
The Internet Protocol is the heart and soul of the TCP/IP protocol suite and Internet itself and perhaps the most talked about protocol in history. IP provides a connectionless service across the network, which is sometimes referred to as an unreliable service because the network does not guarantee delivery or packet sequencing. IP packets typically contain an entire message or a piece (fragment) of a message that can be as large as 65,535 bytes in length. The protocol does not provide a flow-control mechanism. IP packets, like all packets, have a header that contains routing and content information (see Figure 7-37). The bits in the packet are numbered from left to right starting at 0, and each row represents a single 32bit word. An IP header must contain a minimum of five words.
Figure 7-36 PPP frame format
Flag
Address
Control Protocol
Data
Flag
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Transport Technologies
Figure 7-37 IP header
Header Version Length
7
TOS Flags
Length Offset Checksum
Datagram ID TTL Protocol
Source IP Address Destination IP Address IP Options
IP Header Fields
The IP header contains approximately 15 unique fields. The Version field identifies the version of IP that is being used to encode the packet (IPv4 vs. IP v6, for example). The Internet Header Length (IHL) field identifies the length of the header in 32-bit words. The maximum value of this field is 15, which means that the IP header has a maximum length of 60 octets. The Type of Service (TOS) field gives the transmitting system the ability to request different classes of service for the packets that it transmits into the network. The TOS field is not typically supported in IPv4 but can be used to specify a service priority (0 7) or route optimization. The Total Length field indicates the length (in octets) of the entire packet, including both the header and the data within the packet. The maximum size of an IP packet is 64 KB (OK, 65,535 bytes). When a packet is broken into smaller chunks (a process called fragmentation) during transmission, the Identification field is used by the transmitting host to ensure that all of the fragments from a single message can be reassociated at the receiving end, to ensure message reassembly. The Flags also play a role in fragmentation and reassembly. The first bit is referred to as the More Fragments (MF) bit and is used to indicate to the receiving host that the last fragment of a packet has been received, so that the receiver can reassemble the packet. The second bit is the Don t Fragment (DF) bit, which prevents packet fragmentation (for delay sensitive applications, for example). The third bit is unused and is always set to 0.
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