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JPEG can typically achieve compression ratios of 10:1 to 20:1 without perceptible loss; 30:1 to 50:1 compression is possible with small to moderate visible artifacts, while 100:1 compression can be achieved although quality suffers dramatically. By comparison, a GIF image loses most of the color information in the process of reducing the 24-bit image to the 256-color palette, providing a 3:1 compression ratio. GIF s LZW compression scheme doesn t work well on photographs, yielding maximum compression levels of 5:1 and sometimes far less. Because the human eye is more sensitive to luminance variations than it is to variations in color, JPEG compresses color data more than it does brightness data. Generally speaking, a gray-scale image that is
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JPEG encoded only achieves a 10 to 25 percent reduction of a full-color JPEG file of similar quality. The uncompressed gray-scale image comprises eight bits per pixel, or roughly a third of the color data. As a result, the compression ratio is much lower.
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TIFF is a tag-based image format designed to promote the interoperability of digital images. The format came into being in 1986 when Aldus Corporation, working with leading scanner vendors, created a standard file format for images to be used in desktop publishing applications. The first version of the specification was published in July 1986; more current versions are released regularly by Adobe and are available at their Web sites. The format that defines a file specifies both the structure of the file and its content. TIFF content consists of a series of definitions of individual fields. The structure, on the other hand, describes how to actually find the fields. These pointers are called tags. TIFF provides a general-purpose format that is compatible with a variety of scanners and image-processing applications. It is deviceindependent and is acceptable to most operating systems, including Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX. The standard has been integrated into most scanner manufacturers software and desktop publishing applications. Adobe continues to enhance TIFF within publishing applications and maintains backward compatibility whenever possible.
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Growth in videoconferencing, on-demand training, and gaming is fueling the growth in digital video technology but the problems mentioned previously still loom large. Recent advances have had an impact; for example, storage and transport limitations can often be overcome with compression. The most widely used compression standard for video is MPEG, created by the Moving Pictures Expert Group, the joint ISO/IEC/ITU-T organization that oversees standards development for video. MPEG is relatively straightforward. There are three types of MPEG frames created during the compression sequence. They are intra (I) frames,
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predicted (P) frames, and bidirectional (B) frames. An intraframe or I frame is nothing more than a frame that is coded as a still image and used as a reference frame. Predicted frames, on the other hand, are predicted from the most recently reconstructed I or P frame. B frames are predicted from the closest two I or P frames, one from the past and one in the future. Imagine the following scenario: You are converting a piece of video that you shot at the beach to MPEG. The scene, shown in Figure 2-22, lasts 6 seconds, and is nothing more than footage of the fishing boat moving slowly in front of the camera, which is locked down on a tripod. Remember that video captures a series of still frames, one every 1/30 of a second (30 frames per second). What MPEG does, in effect, is an analysis of the video based on the reference (I) frames, the predicted frames, and the bidirectional frames. From the image shown in the illustration, it should be clear that very little changes from one frame to another in a 1/30-second interval. The boat may move slightly (but very slightly), and the foam that the propeller is churning up will change. Other than that, very little in the scene changes. Without going into too much technical detail, what MPEG does is reuse those elements of the I frame that don t change or that change infrequently so that it does not have to recreate them, thus reducing overall compression time. In our fishing boat scene it should be fairly obvious that the background certainly won t change much (unless a bird flies into it), the immediate foreground won t change, and the color and shape of the boat are constant. This is a fairly predictable scene. As a result, the number of I frames that will be interspersed among the P and B frames is relatively small. If the scene were different a fishing boat being tossed about on rough seas, for example then the number of minimally uncompressed reference frames would be greater because of the constantly changing point of reference. MPEG looks backward to establish patterns of behavior of past frames, then looks at the reference frame, and finally predicts what future frames will probably look like based on past history. Ultimately, the sequence of frames is as follows:
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