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customer the appearance that they are buying private network service. In a sense they are: They do have a dedicated logical facility. The difference is that they share the physical facilities with many other users, which allows the service provider to offer the transport service for a lower cost. Furthermore, secure protocols protect each customer s traffic from interception. VPNs are illustrated in Figure 2-27. As you may have intuited by now, the degree of involvement that the Transport Layer has varies with the type of network. For example, if the network consists of a single, dedicated, point-to-point circuit, then there is very little that could happen to the data during the transmission, since the data would consist of an uninterrupted, single-hop stream there are no switches along the way that could cause pieces of the message to go awry. The Transport Layer, therefore, would have little to do to guarantee the delivery of the message. However, what if the architecture of the network is not as robust as a private line circuit What if this is a packet network, in which case the message is broken into segments by the Transport Layer and these segments are independently routed through the fabric of the network Furthermore, what if there is no guarantee that all of the packets will take the same route through the network wilderness In that case, the route actually consists of a series of routes between the switches, like a string of sausage links. In this situation, there is no guarantee that the components of the message will arrive in sequence; in fact, there is no guarantee that they will arrive at all! The Transport Layer, therefore, has a major responsibility to ensure that all of the message components arrive and that they carry enough additional information in the form of yet another header this time on each packet to allow them to be properly resequenced at the destination. The header, for example, contains
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Figure 2-27 Virtual private network (VPN)
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sequence numbers that the receiving Transport Layer can use to reassemble the original message from the stream of random packets. Consider the following scenario: A transmitter fires a message into the network, where it passes through each of the upper layers until it reaches the originating Transport Layer, which segments the message into a series of five packets labeled one of five, two of five, three of five, and so on. The packets enter the network and proceed to make their way across the wilderness of the network fabric. Packets one, two, three, and five arrive without incident, although they do arrive out of order. Packet four, unfortunately, gets caught in a routing loop in New Mexico. The receive Transport Layer, tasked with delivering a complete, correct message to the layers above, puts everything on hold while it awaits the arrival of the errant packet. The layer, however, will wait only so long. It has no idea where the packet is; it does, however, know where it is not. After some predetermined period of time, the receive Transport Layer assumes that the packet isn t going to make it and initiates recovery procedures that result in the retransmission of the missing packet. Meanwhile, the lost packet has finally stopped and asked for directions, extricated itself from the traffic jams of Albuquerque, and made its way to the destination. It arrives, covered with dust, an I ve Seen Crystal Caverns bumper sticker on its trailer, expecting to be incorporated into the original message. By this time, however, the packet has been replaced with the resent packet. Clearly, some kind of process must be in place to handle duplicate packet situations, which happen rather frequently. The Transport Layer then becomes the center point of message integrity. Transport Layer standards are diverse and numerous. ISO, the ITU-T, and the IETF publish recommendations for layer four. The ITU-T publishes X.224 and X.234, which detail the functions of both connectionoriented and connectionless networks. ISO publishes ISO 8073, which defines a transport protocol with five layers of functionality ranging from TP0 through TP4, as shown.
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Class 0 (TP0): Simple class Class 1 (TP1): Basic error recovery class Class 2 (TP2): Multiplexing class Class 3 (TP3): Error recovery and multiplexing class Class 4 (TP4): Error detection and recovery class
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TP0 has the least capability; it is roughly equivalent to the IETF s User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which will be discussed a bit later. TP4
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