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is the most common ISO Transport Layer protocol and is equivalent in capability to the IETF s Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). It provides an ironclad transport function and operates under the assumption that the network is wholly unreliable and must therefore take extraordinary steps to safeguard the user s data. Before we descend into the wilds of the Network Layer, let s introduce the concepts of switching and routing. Modern networks are often represented as a cloud filled with boxes representing switches or routers. Depending upon such factors as congestion, cost, number of hops between routers, and other considerations, the network selects the optimal end-to-end path for the stream of packets created by the Transport Layer. Depending upon the nature of the Network Layer protocol that is in use, the network will take one of two actions. It will either establish a single path over which all the packets will travel, in sequence, or, the network will simply be handed the packets and told to deliver them as it sees fit. The first technique, which establishes a seemingly dedicated path, is called connection-oriented service; the other technique, which does not dedicate a path, is called connectionless service. We will discuss each of these in turn. Before we do, however, let s discuss the evolution of switched networks.
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Modern switched networks typically fall into one of two major categories: circuit switched, in which the network preestablishes a path for transport of traffic from a source to a destination, as is done in the traditional telephone network; and store-and-forward networks, in which the traffic is handed from one switch to the next as it makes its way across the network fabric. When traffic arrives at a switch in a store-and-forward network, it is stored, examined for errors and destination information, and forwarded to the next hop along the path hence the name, store and forward. Packet switching is one form of store-and-forward technology.
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Thus, from some far-away and beleaguered island, where all day long the men have fought a desperate battle from their city walls, the smoke goes up to heaven; but no sooner has the sun gone down than the light from the
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line of beacons blazes up and shoots into the sky to warn the neighboring islanders and bring them to the rescue in their ships. The Iliad by Homer, circa 700 BC
The first store-and-forward networks were invented and used . . . by the early Greeks and Romans. Indeed, Mycenae learned of the fall of Troy because of a line of signal towers between the two cities that used fire in each tower to transmit information from tower to tower. An opening on the side of each tower could be alternately opened and blocked, and using a rudimentary signaling code, short messages could be sent between them in a short period of time. A message could be conveyed across a large country, such as France, in a matter of hours, as Napoleon discovered and used to his great advantage. The earliest modern store-and-forward networks were the telegraph networks. When a customer handed over a message in the form of a flimsy yellow paper that was to be transmitted, the operator would transmit the message in code over the open wire telegraph lines to the next office, where the message printed out on a streaming paper tape. On the tape would appear a sequence of alternating pencil marks and gaps, or spaces, combinations of which represented characters a mark represented a one, while a space represented a zero. A point of historical interest is that the terminology mark and space is common parlance in modern networks: In T-Carrier, the encoding scheme is called Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI), because every other one alternates in polarity from the ones that surround it. Similarly, Alternate Space Inversion is used in signaling schemes such as on the ISDN D-Channel. At any rate, the entire message would be delivered in this fashion, from office to office to office, ultimately arriving at its final destination, a technique called message switching. Over time, of course, the process became fully mechanized and the telegraph operators disappeared. There was one major problem with this technique. What happened if the message, upon arrival, was found to be corrupt, or if it simply did not arrive for some odd reason In that case, the entire message would have to be resent at the request of the receiver. This added overall delay in the system and was awfully inefficient because, in most cases, only a few characters were corrupted. Nevertheless, the entire message was retransmitted. Once the system was fully mechanized, it meant that the switches had to have hard drives on which to store the incoming messages, which added yet more delay, since hard drives are mechanical devices and by their very nature relatively slow. Improvements didn t come along until the advent of packet switching.
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