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packet came in on. The switch then records in its routing tables an entry that dictates that all packets originating from the same source (the source being a virtual circuit address/physical port address combination that identifies the logical source of the packets) should be transmitted out the same switch port. This process is then followed by every switch in the path, from the source to the destination. Each switch makes table entries, similar to the blazes left by the Corps of Discovery.2 With this technique, the only packet that requires a complete address is the initial one that blazes the trail through the network wilderness. All subsequent packets carry nothing more than a short identifier a virtual circuit address that instructs each switch they pass through how to handle them. Thus, all the packets with the same origin will follow the same path through the network. Consequently, they will arrive in order and will all be delayed the same amount of time as they traverse the network. The service provided by connection-oriented networks is called virtual circuit service, because it simulates the service provided by a dedicated network. The technique is called connection-oriented because the switches perceive that there is a relationship, or connection, between all of the packets that derive from the same source. As with most technologies, there is a downside to connection-oriented transmission: In the event of a network failure or heavy congestion somewhere along the predetermined path, the circuit is interrupted and will require some form of intervention to correct the problem, because the network is not self-healing from a protocol point of view. There are certainly network management schemes and stopgap measures in place to reduce the possibility that a network failure might cause a service interruption, but in a connection-oriented network these measures are external. Nevertheless, because of its ability to emulate the service provided by a dedicated network, connection-oriented services are widely deployed and very successful. Examples include frame relay, X.25 packet-based service, and ATM. All will be discussed in detail later in the book.
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The alternative to connection-oriented switching is connectionless switching, sometimes called datagram service. In connectionless net2 The alternative is to have a network administrator manually preconfigure the routes from source to destination. This guarantees a great deal of control, but also obviates the need for an intelligent network.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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works there is no predetermined path from the source to the destination. There is no call setup packet; all data packets are treated independently, and the switches perceive no relationship between them as they arrive hence the name, connectionless. Every packet carries a complete destination address, since it cannot rely on the existence of a preestablished path created by a call setup packet. When a packet arrives at the ingress switch of a connectionless network, the switch examines the packet s destination address. Based on what it knows about the topology of the network, congestion, cost of individual routes, distance (sometimes called hop count), and other factors that affect routing decisions, the switch will select an outbound route that optimizes whatever parameters the switch has been instructed to concern itself with. Each switch along the path does the same thing. For example, let s assume that the first packet of a message, upon arrival at the ingress switch, would normally be directed out physical port number 7 because, based upon current known network conditions, that port provides the shortest path (lowest hop count) to the destination. However, upon closer examination, the switch realizes that while port 7 provides the shortest hop count, the route beyond the port is severely congested. As a result, the packet is routed out port 13, which results in a longer path but avoids the congestion. And since there is no preordained rout through the network, the packet will simply have to get directions when it arrives at the next switch. Now, the second packet of the message arrives. Because this is a connectionless environment, however, the switch does not realize that the packet is related to the packet that preceded it. The switch examines the destination address on the second packet, then proceeds to route the packet as it did with the preceding one. This time, however, upon examination of the network, the switch finds that port 7, the shortest path from the source to the destination, is no longer congested. It therefore transmits the packet on port 7, thus ensuring that packet two will, in all likelihood, arrive before packet one! Clearly, this poses a problem for message integrity and illustrates the criticality of the Transport Layer, which, you will recall, provides end-to-end message integrity by reassembling the message from a collection of out-of-order packets that arrive with varying degrees of delay because of the vagaries of connectionless networks. Connectionless service is often called unreliable because it fails to guarantee delay minimums, sequential delivery, or for that matter, any kind of delivery. This causes many people to question why network designers would rely on a technology that guarantees so little. The
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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