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answer lies within the layered protocol model. While connectionless networks do not guarantee sequential delivery or limits on delay, they will ultimately deliver the packets. Because they are not required to transmit along a fixed path, the switches in a connectionless network have the freedom to route around trouble spots by dynamically selecting alternate pathways, thus ensuring delivery, albeit somewhat unpredictable. If this process results in out-of-order delivery, no problem that s what the Transport Layer is for. Data communications is a team effort and requires the capabilities of many different layers to ensure the integrity and delivery of a message from the transmitter to the receiver. Thus, even an unreliable protocol has distinct advantages. An example of a well-known connectionless protocol is the Internet Protocol, or IP. It relies on the TCP, a Transport Layer protocol, to guarantee end-to-end correctness of the delivered message. There are times, however, when the foolproof capabilities of TCP and TCP-like protocols are considered overkill. For example, network management systems tend to generate large volumes of small messages on a regularly scheduled basis. These messages carry information about the health and welfare of the network and about topological changes that routing protocols need to know about if they are to maintain accurate routing tables in the switches. The problem with these messages is that they (1) are numerous, and (2) often carry information that hasn t changed since the last time the message was generated, 30 seconds ago. TCP and TP4 protocols are extremely overhead-heavy compared to their lighter-weight cousins UDP and TP1. Otherwise, they would not be able to absolutely, positively guarantee the delivery of the message. In some cases, however, there may not be a need to absolutely, positively guarantee delivery. After all, if I lose one of those status messages, no problem: It will be generated again in 30 seconds anyway. The result of this is that some networks choose not to employ the robust and capable protocols available to them, simply because the marginal advantage they provide doesn t merit the transport and processing overhead they create in the network. Thus, connectionless networks are extremely widely deployed. After all, those billion (or so) Internet users must be reasonably happy with the technology. Let s now examine the Network Layer. Please note that we are now entering the realm of the chained layers, which you will recall are used by all devices in the path end-used devices as well as the switches or routers themselves.
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The Network Layer, which is the uppermost of the three chained layers, has two key responsibilities: routing and congestion control. We will also briefly discuss switching at this layer, even though many books consider it to be a layer two process. So for the purists in the audience, please bear with me there s a method to my madness. When the telephone network first started its remarkable growth path at the sunrise of the twentieth century, there was no concept of switching. If a customer wanted to be able to speak with another customer, he or she had to have a phone in his or her house with a dedicated path to that person s home. Another person required another phone and phone line and you quickly begin to see where this is leading. Figure 2-28 illustrates the problem: The telephone network s success would bring on the next ice age, blocking the sun with all the aerial wire the telephone network would be required to deploy. Consider this simple mathematical model: In order to fully interconnect, or mesh, five customers as shown in Figure 2-29 so that any one of them can call any other, the telephone company would have to install ten circuits, according to the equation n(n 1)/2, where n is the number of devices that wish to communicate. Extrapolate that out now to the population of even a small city say, 2,000 people. That boils down to 3,997,999 circuits that would have to be
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Figure 2-28 Aerial telephone wire (Courtesy Lucent Technologies)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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