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applications or connections with long hold times. Store-and-forward networks, particularly packet networks, work well for short, bursty messages with minimal delay sensitivity. To manage all this, however, is more complicated than it would seem at first blush. First of all, the switches must have the ability to select not only a path, but also the best path, based on QoS parameters. This constitutes intelligent routing. Second, they should have some way of monitoring the network so that they always know its current operational conditions. Finally, should they encounter unavoidable congestion, the switches should have one or more ways to deal with it.
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So, how are routing decisions made in a typical network Whether connectionless or connection-oriented, the routers and switches in the network must take into account a variety of factors to determine the best path for the traffic they manage. These factors fall into a broad category of rule sets called routing protocols. For reference purposes, please refer to the tree shown in Figure 2-32. Once the Transport Layer has taken whatever steps are necessary to prepare the packets for their transmission across the network, they are passed to the Network Layer.
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Figure 2-32 Routing protocol overview tree
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Routing Protocols Dynamic Distributed Centralized Static
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Protocols
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The Network Layer has two primary responsibilities in the name of network integrity: routing and congestion control. Routing is the process of intelligently selecting the most appropriate route through the network for the packets; congestion control is the process that ensures that the packets are minimally delayed (or at least equally delayed) as they make their way from the source to the destination. We will begin with a discussion of routing.
Routing Protocols
Routing protocols are divided into two main categories static routing protocols and dynamic routing protocols. Static routing protocols are those that require a network administrator to establish and maintain them. If a routing table change is required, the network administrator must manually make the change. This ensures absolute security, but is labor intensive and therefore less frequently used other than in highly secure environments (e.g. military, health care) or network architectures that are designed around static routing because the routes are relatively stable anyway (IBM s Systems Network Architecture, SNA, for example). More common are dynamic routing protocols, in which network devices make their own decisions about optimum route selection. They do this in the following general way: They pay attention to the network around them; collect information from their neighbors about best routes to particular destinations based on such parameters as least number of hops, least delay, lowest cost, or highest bandwidth; archive those bits of information in tables; and then selectively flush the tables periodically to ensure that the information contained in them is always as current as possible. Because dynamic routing protocols assume intelligence in the switch and can therefore reduce the amount of human intervention required, they are commonly used; in fact, they are the most widely deployed routing protocols. Dynamic routing protocols are further divided into two subcategories, centralized and distributed. Centralized routing protocols concentrate the route decision-making processes in a single node, thus ensuring that all nodes in the network receive the same and most current information possible. When a switch or router needs routing information that is not contained in its own table, it sends a request to the root node asking for direction. There are significant downsides to this technique. First, by concentrating the decision-making capability in a single node, the likelihood of a catastrophic failure is dramatically increased. If that node fails, the
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