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Remember when Jeff Goldblum, the chaos theoretician in Jurassic Park, talked about the Butterfly Effect How a butterfly flapping its wings in the Amazon Basin can kick off a chain of events that affect weather patterns in New York City That aspect of Chaos Theory contributes greatly to the manner in which networks behave and the degree to which their behavior is immensely difficult to predict under load. So how is congestion handled in data networks The simplest technique, used by both frame relay and ATM, is called packet discard, shown in Figure 2-33. In the event that traffic gets too heavy based on preestablished management parameters, the switches simply discard excess packets. They can do this because of two facts: First, networks are highly capable and the switches rarely have to resort to these measures; second, the devices on the ends of the network are intelligent and will detect the loss of information and take whatever steps are required to have the discarded data resent. As drastic as this technique seems, it is not all that catastrophic. Modern networks are heavily dependent on optical fiber and highly capable digital switches; as a result, packet discard, while serious, does not pose a major problem for the network. Even when it is required, recovery techniques are fast and accurate. Because congestion occurs primarily as the result of inadequate buffer capacity, one solution is to preallocate buffers to high-priority traffic. Another is to create multiple queues with varying priority levels. If a voice or video packet arrives that requires high-priority, low-delay
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Figure 2-33 Congestion control with packet discard
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Uh-oh too much traffic. Guess I'll have to...
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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treatment, it will be deposited into the highest priority queue for instantaneous transmission. This technique holds great promise for the evolving all-services Internet, because its greatest failing is its inability to deliver multiple, dependable, sustainable grades of service quality. Other techniques are available that are somewhat more complex than packet discard but do not result in loss of data. For example, some devices, when informed of congestion within the network, will delay transmission to give the network switches time to process their overload before receiving more. Others will divert traffic to alternate, lesscongested routes, or trickle packets into the network, a process known as choking. This is shown in Figure 2-34. Frame relay, for example, has the ability to send what is called a choke packet into the network, implicitly telling the receiving device that it should throttle back to reduce congestion in the network. Whether it does or not is another story, but the point is that the network has the intelligence to invoke such a command when required. This technique is now used on freeways in large cities: Traffic lights are installed on major onramps that meter the traffic onto the roadway. This results in a dramatic reduction in congestion. Other networks have the intelligence to diversely route traffic, thus reducing the congestion that occurs in certain areas. Clearly, the Network Layer provides a set of centrally important capabilities to the network itself. Through a combination of network protocols, routing protocols, and congestion control protocols, routers and switches provide granular control over the integrity of the network.
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Figure 2-34 Congestion control using throttling
You ll go when I tell you to go!
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Back to the E-Mail Message
Let us return now to our e-mail example. The message has been divided into packets by the Transport Layer and delivered in pieces to the Network Layer, which now takes whatever steps are necessary to ensure that the packets are properly addressed for efficient delivery to the destination. Each packet now has a header attached to it that contains routing information and a destination address. The next step is to get the packet correctly to the next link in the network chain in this case, the next switch or router along the way. This is the responsibility of the Data Link Layer.
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