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there must be some form of positive and negative acknowledgment system in place, the transmitter must keep a copy of the frame until its receipt has been acknowledged, and there must be some facility in place to allow the receiver to communicate upstream to the transmitter. Two recovery techniques are commonly used in synchronous systems. To understand them, we must first introduce a couple of transmission protocols used to meter the transmission of frames between switches. In early communications systems (1970s), the network was known to be relatively hostile to data transmission. After all, if noise occurred during a voice conversation, no problem it was a simple matter to ignore it, provided it wasn t too bad. In data, however, a small amount of noise could be catastrophic, easily capable of destroying a long series of frames in a few milliseconds. As a result, early data systems such as IBM s Binary Synchronous Communications (BISYNC) used a protocol called Stop-and-Wait that would permit only a single frame at a time to be outstanding without acknowledgment from the receiver. This was obviously terribly inefficient, but in those early days was as good as it got. Thus, if a major problem occurred, the maximum number of frames that would ever have to be resent was one. As time passed and network quality improved, designers got brave and began to allow multiple unacknowledged frames to be outstanding, a process called pipelining. In pipelined systems, a maximum window size is agreed upon that defines the maximum number of frames that can ever be allowed to be outstanding at any point in time. If the number is reached, the window closes, closing down the pipeline and prohibiting other frames from being transmitted. As soon as one or more frames clear the receiver, that many new frames are allowed into the pipeline by the sliding window. Obviously this protocol is reliant on the ability to number the frames so that the system knows when the maximum window size has been reached. OK, back to error recovery. We mentioned earlier that there are two common techniques. The first of these is called selective retransmit. In selective retransmit environments, if an error occurs, the transmitter is directed to resend only the errored frame. This is a complex technique, but is quite efficient. The second technique is called Go Back N. In Go Back N environments, if an error occurs, the transmitter is directed to go back to the errored frame and retransmit everything from that frame forward. This technique is less efficient but is far simpler from an implementation point of view.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Let s look at an example. Assume that a transmitter generates five frames, which are numbered one of five, two of five, three of five, etc. Now let s assume that frame three arrives and is found to be errored. In a selective retransmit environment, the transmitter is directed to resend frame three, and only frame three. In a Go Back N environment, however, the transmitter will be directed to resend everything from frame three going forward, which means that it will send frames three, four, and five. The receiver will simply discard frames four and five. So let s review the task of the Data Link Layer. It frames the packet so that it can be checked for bit errors, provides various line control functions so that the network itself can be managed properly, provides addressing information so that the frame can be delivered appropriately; and performs error detection and (sometimes) correction.
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