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expanding the bandwidth it is capable of delivering as well as the distance over which that bandwidth can be delivered.
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We have now discussed the functions carried out at each layer of the OSI Model. Layers six and seven ensure application integrity; layer five ensures security; layer four guarantees the integrity of the transmitted message; layer three ensures network integrity; layer two, data integrity; and layer one, the integrity of the bits themselves. Thus transmission is guaranteed on an end-to-end basis through a series of protocols that are interdependent upon each other and that work closely to ensure integrity at every possible level of the transmission hierarchy. So let s now go back to our e-mail example and walk through the entire process. The Eudora e-mail application running on the PC creates a message at the behest of the human user4 and passes the message to the Application Layer. The Application Layer converts the message into a format that can be universally understood as an e-mail message, in this case X.400. It then adds a header that identifies the X.400 format of the message. The X.400 message with its new header is then passed down to the Presentation Layer, which encodes it as ASCII, encrypts it using PGP, and compresses it using a British Telecom Lempel-Ziv compression algorithm. After adding a header that details all this, it passes the message to layer five. The Session Layer assigns a logical session number to the message, glues on a packet header identifying the session ID, and passes the steadily growing message down to the Transport Layer. Based on network limitations and rule sets, the Transport Layer breaks the message into eleven packets and numbers them appropriately. Each packet is given a header with address and quality-of-service information. The packets now enter the chained layers, where they will first encounter the network. The Network Layer examines each packet in turn, and, based on the nature of the underlying network (connection-
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4 I specifically note human user here because some protocols do not recognize the existence of the human in the network loop. In IBM SNA environments, for example, users are devices or processes that use network resources. There are no humans.
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oriented Connectionless ) and congestion status, queues the packets for transmission. After creating the header on each packet, they are handed individually down to the Data Link Layer. The Data Link Layer proceeds to build a frame around each packet. It calculates a CRC, inserts a Data Link Layer address, inserts appropriate control information, and finally adds flags on each end of the frame. Note that all other layers add a header only; the Data Link Layer is the only layer that also adds a trailer. Once the Data Link frame has been constructed it is passed down to the Physical Layer, which encodes the incoming bitstream according to the transmission requirements of the underlying network. For example, if the data is to be transmitted across a T- or E-Carrier network, the data will be encoded using AMI and will be transmitted across the facility to the next switch at either 1.544 Mbps or 2.048 Mbps, depending on whether the network is T1 or E1. When the bitstream arrives at the next switch (not the destination), the bits flow into the Physical Layer, which determines that it can read the bits. The Physical Layer hands the bits up to the Data Link Layer, which proceeds to find the flags so that it can frame the incoming stream of data and check it for errors. If we assume that it finds none, it strips off the Data Link frame surrounding the packet and passes the packet up to the Network Layer. The Network Layer examines the destination address in the packet, at which point it realizes that it is not the intended recipient. So, it passes it back to the Data Link Layer, which builds a new frame around it, calculating a new CRC and adding a new Data Link Layer address as it does so. It then passes the frame back to the Physical Layer for transmission. The Physical Layer spits the bits out the facility to the next switch, which, for our purposes we will assume is the intended destination. The Physical Layer receives the bits and passes them to the Data Link Layer, which checks them for errors. If it finds an errored frame it requests a resend, but ultimately receives the frame correctly. It then strips off the header and trailer, leaving the original packet. The packet is then passed up to the Network Layer, which, after examining the packet address, determines that it is in fact the intended recipient of the packet. As a result, it passes the packet up to the Transport Layer, after stripping off the Network Layer header. The Transport Layer examines the packet and notices that it has received packet three of eleven packets. Because its job is to assemble and pass entire messages up to the Session Layer, the Transport Layer simply places the packet into a buffer while it waits for the other ten packets to arrive. It will wait as long as it has to; it knows that it cannot
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