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long-distance provider from a pool of available service providers in this case AT&T, MCI, or Sprint. This, of course, was the realization of a truly competitive marketplace in the long-distance market segment. To understand this evolution, it is helpful to have a high-level understanding of the overall architecture of the network. In the predivestiture world, AT&T was the provider for local service, long-distance service and communications equipment. An AT&T central office, therefore, was awash in AT&T hardware switches, cross-connect devices, multiplexers, amplifiers, repeaters, and myriad other devices. Figure 3-6 shows a typical network layout in the predivestiture world. A customer s telephone is connected to the service provider s network by a local loop connection (so-called twisted pair wire). The local loop, in turn, connects to the local switch in the central office. This switch is the point at which customers first touch the telephone network, and it has the responsibility to perform the initial call setup, maintain the call while it is in progress, and tear it down when the call is complete. This switch is called a local switch because its primary responsibility is to set up local calls that originate and terminate within the same switch. It has one other responsibility, though, and that is to provide the necessary interface between the local switch and the long-distance switch, so that calls between adjacent local switches (or between far-flung local switches) can be established. The process, then, goes something like this: When a customer lifts the handset and goes off-hook, a switch in the telephone closes, completing a circuit that allows current flow, which, in turn, brings dial tone to the customer s ear. Upon hearing the dial tone, the customer enters the destination address of the call (otherwise known
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Figure 3-6 Predivestiture connectivity
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as a telephone number). The switch receives the telephone number and analyzes it, determining from the area code and prefix information whether the call can be completed within the local switch or must leave the local switch for another one. If the call is indeed local, it merely burrows through the crust of the switch and then reemerges at the receiving local loop. If the call is a toll or long-distance call, it must burrow through the hard crunchy coating of the switch, pass through the soft chewy center, and emerge again on the other crunchy side on its way to a longdistance switch. Keep in mind that the local switch has no awareness of the existence of customers or telephony capability beyond its own cabinets. Thus, when it receives a telephone number that it is incapable of processing it, hands the number off to a higher-order switch, with the implied message, Here I have no idea what to do with this, but I assume that you do. The long-distance switch receives the number from the local switch, processes the call, establishes the necessary connection and passes the call on to the remote long-distance switch over a long-distance circuit. The remote long-distance switch passes the call to the remote local switch, which rings the destination telephone, and, ultimately, the call is established. Please note that in this predivestiture example, the originating local loop, local switch, long-distance switch, remote local loop, and all of the interconnect hardware and wiring belong to AT&T. They are mostly manufactured by Western Electric, based on a set of internal manufacturing standards that, were there other manufacturers in the industry, would be considered proprietary. Because AT&T was the only game in town (in the United States at least) prior to divestiture, AT&T created the standard for transmission interfaces. Fast forward now to January 1, 1984, and put yourself into the mind of MCI s Bill McGowan, whose company s very survival depended upon the successful implementation of Equal Access. Unfortunately, Equal Access had one very serious flaw. Keep in mind that, because the post1984 network was emerging from the darkness of monopoly control, all of the equipment that made up the network infrastructure was bought at the proverbial company store and was, by the way, proprietary. Consider the newly recreated postdivestiture network model shown in Figure 3-7. At the local switch level, precious little has changed at this point in time there is still only a single local service provider. At the longdistance level, however, there is a significant change. Instead of a single long-distance service provider called AT&T, there are now three AT&T, MCI, and Sprint. The competitive mandate of Equal Access was designed
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