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Figure 3-17 A remote loop carrier terminal
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Figure 3-18 Carrier Serving Area (CSA) architecture
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Either way, the customer s local loop, whether as a standalone pair of wires or as a time slot on a carrier system, makes its way over the physical infrastructure on its way to the network. It may be aerial, as shown in Figure 3-19, or underground, as shown in Figure 3-20. If it has to
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Figure 3-19 Aerial plant Telephony is the lowest set of facilities on the pole.
Figure 3-20 Underground plant
travel a significant distance, it may encounter a load coil along the way, which is a device that tunes the local loop to the range of frequencies required for voice transport and extends the distance over which the signals can travel. A load pot, shown in Figure 3-21, comprises multiple load coils and performs loading for all the cable pairs in a cable that require it. It may also encounter a repeater if it is a digital loop carrier; the repeater receives the incoming signal, now weakened and noisy from the distance it has traveled, and reconstructs it, amplifying it before sending it on its way.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
Telephony
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One last item of interest: Though we call them telephone poles, the wooden poles that support telephone cables are, in fact, shared among telephone, power, and cable providers, as shown in Figure 3-22. Telephony plant is the lowest, followed by cable; power is the highest, high enough that the tallest technician working on a phone or cable problem could not accidentally touch the open power conductors. Normally the telephone company owns the pole and leases space on it to other utilities. As a cable approaches the central office, its pairs are often combined with those of other approaching cables in a splice case (see Figure 3-23)
Figure 3-21 A load pot containing load coils
Figure 3-22 Shared pole for aerial plant
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Telephony
Telephony
Figure 3-23 Splice cases (two on left, one on right)
Figure 3-24 In the cable vault, the large cables shown on the left are broken down into the smaller cables on the right for distribution throughout the office.
to create a larger cable. For example, four 250-pair cables may be combined to create a 1,000 pair cable, which in turn may be combined with others to create a 5,000 pair cable that enters the central office. Once inside the office the cables are broken out for distribution. This is done in the cable vault; an example is shown in Figure 3-24. The large cable on the left side of the splice case is broken down into the collection of smaller cables, exiting on the right.
Into the Central Office
We could say a great deal more about the access segment of the network, and will later. For now, though, let s begin our tour of the central office. By now our cable has traveled over aerial and underground traverses and has arrived at the central office. It enters the building via a buried conduit that feeds into the cable vault, the lowest subbasement in the
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office. (Remember, this is where the New York City fire began.) Because the cable vault is exposed to the underground conduit system, there is a always a danger that noxious and potentially explosive gases (methane, mostly) could flow into the cable vault and be set afire by a piece of sparking electrical equipment. These rooms are, therefore, closely monitored by the electronic equivalent of the canary in a coal mine, and will cause alarms to sound if gas is detected at dangerous levels. The cables that enter the cable vault are large and encompass hundreds if not thousands of wire pairs, as shown in Figure 3-25. Their security is obviously critical, because the loss of a single cable could mean loss of service for hundreds or thousands of customers. To help maintain the integrity of the outside plant, large cables are pressurized with very dry air, fed from a pressurization pump and manifold system in the cable vault (see Figure 3-26). The pressure serves two purposes: It keeps moisture from leaking into a minor breach in the cable, and serves as an alarm system in the event of a major cable failure. Cable plant technicians can analyze the data being fed to them from pressure transducers along the cable route and very accurately determine the location of the break. As soon as the large cables have been broken down into smaller pair bundles, they leave the cable vault on their way up to the Main Distribution Frame, or MDF. Before we leave the basement of the CO, we should discuss power, a major consideration in an office that provides telecommunications services to hundreds of subscribers.
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