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Figure 3-30 Main Distribution Frame, or MDF
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Figure 3-31 Vertical side of MDF showing , protectors
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situation and protect the equipment and people in the office. A close-up of carbons is shown in Figure 3-32. The vertical side of the MDF is wired to the horizontal side. The horizontal side, shown in Figure 3-33, is ultimately wired to the central office switch. Notice the mass of wire lying on each shelf of the frame: These are the cable pairs from the customers served by the office. Imagine the complexity of troubleshooting a problem in that hairball. I have spent many hours up to my shoulders in wire, tugging on a wire pair while a technician fifty feet down the frame, also up to his elbows in wire, feels for the wire that is moving so it can be traced. The horizontal side also provides craft/technician access for repair purposes. In Figure 3-34, Dick Pecor has connected a test set to the appearance of a cable pair and is listening for noise.
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Figure 3-32 Close-up of carbons
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Figure 3-33 Horizontal side of MDF
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Figure 3-34 Dick Pecor testing cable pair on horizontal side of MDF
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New technicians are usually given a trial by fire when they arrive for work at a switching office. One of the most common pranks is to ask them to help troubleshoot a cable pair problem. They are asked to reach as far as they possibly can into the mass of wire on the horizontal side of the frame and feel for the wire that is moving, so that they can then wiggle it to help a technician farther down the MDF locate it and trace it to locate a problem. The new tech, now bent over and reaching deep into the frame holding a wire pair, doesn t realize that another technician is now on the vertical side of the frame, reaching into the wire mass with a wire lasso, which is slipped over the new tech s arm and tied tightly to the far side of the frame. The technicians then go to lunch, leaving the new tech wired in place. Naturally, other technicians ignore his pleas for help; they remember their own experiences all too well. From the MDF, the cable pairs are connected to the local switch in the office. Figure 3-35 shows a Lucent #5ESS local switch. Remember that the job of the local switch is to establish temporary connections between two or more customers who wish to talk, or between two computers that wish to spit bits at each other. The line units (LUs) on the switch provide a connection point for every cable pair served by that particular switch in the office. Conceptually, then, it is a relatively simple task for the switch to connect one subscriber in the switch with another subscriber in the same switch. After all, the switch maintains tables a directory, if you will so it knows the subscribers to which it is directly connected. Far more complicated is the task of connecting a subscriber in one switch to a subscriber in another. This is where network intelligence becomes critically important. As we mentioned earlier, when the switch
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Telephony
Telephony
Figure 3-35 Lucent 5ESS switch
receives the dialed digits, it performs a rudimentary analysis on them to determine whether the called party is locally hosted. If the number is in the same switch, the call is established. If it resides in another switch, the task is a bit more complex. First, the local switch must pass the call on to the local tandem switch, which provides access to the points of presence (POPs) of the various long-distance carriers that serve the area. The tandem switch typically does not connect directly to subscribers; it connects to other switches only. It also performs a database query through SS7 to determine who the subscriber s long-distance carrier of choice is so that it can route the call to the appropriate carrier. The tandem switch then hands the call off to the long-distance carrier, which transports it over the long-distance network to the carrier s switch in the remote (receiving) office. The long-distance switch passes the call through the remote tandem, which in turn hands the call off to the local switch that the called party is attached to. SS7 s influence once again becomes obvious here. One of the problems that occurred in earlier telephone system designs was the following. When a subscriber placed a call, the local switch handed the call off to the tandem, which in turn handed the call off to the long-distance provider. The long-distance provider seized a trunk, over which it transported the dialed digits to the receiving central office. The signaling information, therefore, traveled over the path designed to produce revenue for the telephone company, a process known as in-band signaling. As long as the called party was home, and wasn t on the phone, the call
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