progress bar code in vb.net 2008 Figure 3-43 E1 framing in Software

Generation Code-39 in Software Figure 3-43 E1 framing

Figure 3-43 E1 framing
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that there was no concept that a customer would ever need access to them. What customer, after all, could ever have a use for a million and a half bits per second of bandwidth Of course, that question was rendered moot in short order as increasing requirements for bandwidth drove demand that went well beyond the limited capabilities of low-speed transmission systems. As T1 became mainstream, its usage went up, and soon requirements emerged for digital transmission systems with capacity greater than 1.544 Mbps. The result was the creation of what came to be known as the North American Digital Hierarchy, shown in Figure 3-44. The table also shows the European and Japanese hierarchy levels.
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From DS1 to DS3
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We have already seen the process employed to create the DS1 signal from 24 incoming DS0 channels and an added frame bit. Now we turn
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Figure 3-44 North American Digital Hierarchy
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Hierarchy Level DS-0 DS-1 E-1 DS-1c DS-2 E-2 DS-3 DS-3c
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United States 64 Kbps 1.544 Mbps
Japan 64 Kbps 1.544 Mbps
2.048 Mbps 3.152 Mbps 6.312 Mbps 8.448 Mbps 34.368 Mbps 44.736 Mbps 91.053 Mbps 3.152 Mbps 6.312 Mbps 32.064 Mbps
E-3 DS-4
139.264 Mbps 274.176 Mbps 397.2 Mbps
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our attention to higher bit rate services. As we wander our way through this explanation, pay particular attention to the complexity involved in creating higher rate payloads. This is one of the great advantages of SONET and SDH. The next level in the North American Digital Hierarchy is called DS2. And while it is rarely seen outside of the safety of the multiplexer in which it resides, it plays an important role in the creation of higher bit rate services. It is created when a multiplexer bit interleaves four DS1 signals, inserting as it does so a control bit, known as a C-bit, every 48 bits in the payload stream. Bit interleaving is an important construct here, because it contributes to the complexity of the overall payload. In a bit-interleaved system, multiple bit streams are combined on a bit-by-bit basis as shown in Figure 3-45. When payload components are bit interleaved to create a higher-rate multiplexed signal, the system first selects bit 1 from channel 1, bit 1 from channel 2, bit 1 from channel 3, and so on. Once it has selected and transmitted all of the first bits, it goes on to the second bits from each channel, then the third, until it has created the super-rate frame. Along the way it intersperses C-bits, which are used to perform certain control and management functions within the frame. Once the 6.312 Mbps DS2 signal has been created, the system shifts into high gear to create the next level in the transmission hierarchy. Seven DS2 signals are then bit interleaved along with C-bits after every 84 payload bits to create a composite 44.736 Mbps DS3 signal. The first part of this process, the creation of the DS2 payload, is called M12 multiplexing; the second step, which combines DS2s to form a DS3, is called M23 multiplexing. The overall process is called M13, and is illustrated in Figure 3-46. The problem with this process is the bit-interleaved nature of the multiplexing scheme. Because the DS1 signal components arrive from different sources, they may be (and usually are) slightly off from one another in terms of the overall phase of the signal in effect, their
Figure 3-45 Bit-interleaved system
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