progress bar code in vb.net 2008 The STS-N Frame in Software

Encoding Code 3/9 in Software The STS-N Frame

The STS-N Frame
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In situations in which multiple STS-1s are required to transport multiple payloads, all of which fit in an STS-1 s payload capacity, SONET allows for the creation of what are called STS-N frames, where N represents the number of STS-1 frames that are multiplexed together to create the frame. If three STS-1s are combined, the result is an STS-3. In this case, the three STS-1s are brought into the multiplexer and byte interleaved to create the STS-3, as shown in Figure 3-55. In other words, the multiplexer selects the first byte of frame one, followed by the first byte of frame two, followed by the first byte of frame three. Then it selects the second byte of frame one, followed by the second byte of frame two, followed by the second byte of frame three, and so on, until it has built an interleaved frame that is now three times the size of an STS-1: 9 270
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Figure 3-55 Byte interleaving in SONET
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bytes instead of 9 90. Interestingly (and impressively!), the STS-3 is still generated 8,000 times per second. The technique I have just described is called a single-stage multiplexing process, because the incoming payload components are combined in a single step. There is also a two-stage technique that is commonly used. For example, an STS-12 can be created in either of two ways. Twelve STS-1s can be combined in a single-stage process to create the byte interleaved STS-12; alternatively, four groups of three STS-1s can be combined to form four STS-3s, which can then be further combined in a second stage to create a single STS-12. Obviously, two-stage multiplexing is more complex than its single-stage cousin, but both are used.
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Special note: The overall bit rate of the STS-N system is N STS-1. However, the maximum bandwidth that can be transported is STS-1 but N of them can be transported! This is analogous to a channelized T1.
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The STS-Nc Frame
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Let s go back to our Fast Ethernet example mentioned earlier. In this case, 51.84 Mbps is inadequate for our purposes, because we have to transport the 100 Mbps Ethernet signal. For this we need what is known as a concatenated signal. One thing you can say about SONET: It doesn t hurt for polysyllabic vocabulary. On the long, lonesome stretches of outback highway in Australia, unsuspecting car drivers often encounter a devilish vehicle known as a road train. Imagine an 18-wheel tractor-trailer (see top drawing, Figure 3-56, for a remarkable illustration) barreling down the highway at 80 miles per hour, but now imagine that it has six trailers in effect, a 98wheeler. These things give passing a whole new meaning. If a road train is rolling down the highway pulling three 50-foot trailers (middle drawing), then it has the ability to transport 150 feet of cargo but only if the cargo is segmented into 50-foot chunks. But what if the trucker wants to transport a 150-foot-long item In that case, a special trailer must be installed that provides room for the 150-foot payload (bottom drawing). If you understand the difference between the second and third drawings, then you understand the difference between an STS-N and an
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Figure 3-56 Australian road trains and concatenated STS-1s
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STS-Nc. The word concatenate means to string together, which is exactly what we do when we need to create what is known as a super-rate frame in other words, a frame capable of transporting a payload that requires more bandwidth than an STS-1 can provide, such as our 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet frame. In the same way that an STS-N is analogous to a channelized T1, an STS-Nc is analogous to an unchannelized T1. In both cases, the customer is given the full bandwidth that the pipe provides; the difference lies in how the bandwidth is parceled out to the user.
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