progress bar code in vb.net 2008 Overhead Modifications in STS-Nc Frames in Software

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Overhead Modifications in STS-Nc Frames
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When we transport multiple STS-1s in an STS-N frame, we assume that they may arrive from different sources. As a result, each frame is inserted into the STS-N frame with its own unique set of overhead. When we create a concatenated frame, though, the data that will occupy the combined bandwidth of the frame derives from the same source if we pack a 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet signal into a 155.53 Mbps STS-3c frame, there s only one signal to pack. It s pretty obvious, then, that we don t need three sets of overhead to guide a single frame through the maze of the network. For example, each frame has a set of bytes that keep track of the payload within the synchronous payload envelope. Since we only have one payload, therefore, we can eliminate two of them. And the Path Overhead that is unique to the payload can similarly be reduced, since there is a column of it for each of the three formerly individual frames. In the case of the pointer that tracks the floating payload,
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the first pointer continues to perform that function; the others are changed to a fixed binary value that is known to receiving devices as a concatenation indication. The details of these bytes will be covered later in the overhead section.
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Transporting Subrate Payloads: Virtual Tributaries
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Let s now go back to our Australian road train example. This time he is carrying individual cans of Fosters Beer. From what I remember about the last time I was dragged into an Aussie pub (and it isn t much), the driver could probably transport about six cans of Fosters per 50-foot trailer. So now we have a technique for carrying payloads smaller than the fundamental 50-foot payload size. This analogy works well for understanding SONET s ability to transport payloads that require less bandwidth than 51.84 Mbps, such as T1 or traditional 10 Mbps Ethernet. When a SONET frame is modified for the transport of subrate payloads, it is said to carry virtual tributaries. Simply put, the payload envelope is chopped into smaller pieces that can then be individually used for the transport of multiple lower-bandwidth signals.
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To create a virtual tributary-ready STS, the synchronous payload envelope is subdivided. An STS-1 comprises 90 columns of bytes, four of which are reserved for overhead functions (Section, Line, and Path). That leaves 86 for actual user payload. To create virtual tributaries, the payload capacity of the SPE is divided into seven 12-column pieces, called virtual tributary (VT) groups. Math majors will be quick to point out that 7 12 84, leaving two unassigned columns. These columns, shown in Figure 3-57, are indeed unassigned, and are given the rather silly name of fixed stuff. Now comes the fun part. Each of the VT groups can be further subdivided into one of four different VTs to carry a variety of payload types, as shown in Figure 3-58. A VT1.5, for example, can easily transport a 1.544 Mbps signal within its 1.728 Mbps capacity, with a little room left over. A VT2, meanwhile, has enough capacity in its 2.304 Mbps structure to carry a 2.048 Mbps European E1 signal, with a little room left over. A VT3 can transport a DS1C signal, while a VT6 can easily accommodate a DS2, again, each with a little room left over.
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