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Figure 3-57 SONET fixed stuff
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Figure 3-58 SONET virtual tributary payload transport
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VTs/SPE
VT Bandwidth
VT1.5
One aspect of virtual tributaries that must be mentioned is the mixand-match nature of the payload. Within a single SPE, the seven VT groups can carry a variety of different VTs. However, each VT group can carry only one VT type. That little room left over comment (earlier) is, by the way, one of the key points that SONET and SDH detractors point to when criticizing them as legacy technologies, claiming that in these times of growing competition and the universal drive for efficiency, they are inordinately wasteful of bandwidth, given that they were designed when the companies that delivered them were monopolies and less concerned about such things than they are now. We will discuss this issue in a later section of the book. For now, though, suffice it to say that one of the elegant aspects
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Telephony
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of SONET is its ability to accept essentially any form of data signal, map it into standardized positions within the SPE frame, and transport it efficiently and at very high speed to a receiving device on the other side of town or the other side of the world.
Creating the Virtual Tributary Superframe
You will recall that when DS1 frames are transmitted through modern networks today, they are typically formatted into extended superframes in order to eke additional capability out of the comparatively large percentage of overhead space that is available. When DS1 or other signals are transported, via an STS-1 formatted into VT groups, four consecutive STS-1s are ganged together to create a single VT superframe, as shown in Figure 3-59. To identify the fact that the frames are behaving as a VT superframe, certain of the overhead bytes are modified to indicate the change.
SONET Synchronization
SONET relies on a timing scheme called plesiochronous timing. As I implied earlier, the word sounds like one of the geological periods that we
Figure 3-59 VT superframe
STS-1 #1 STS-1 #2 STS-1 #3 STS-1 #4
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all learned in geology classes (Jurassic, Triassic, Plesiochronous, Plasticene). Plesiochronous derives from Greek, and means almost timed. Other words that are commonly tossed about in this industry are asynchronous (not timed), isochronous (constant delay in the timing), and synchronous (timed). SONET is plesiochronous in spite of its name (Synchronous Optical Network) because the communicating devices in the network rely on multiple timing sources and are, therefore, allowed to drift slightly relative to each other. This is fine, because SONET has the ability to handle this with its pointer adjustment capabilities. The devices in a SONET network have the luxury of choosing from any of five timing schemes to ensure accuracy of the network. As long as the schemes have Stratum 4 accuracy or better, they are perfectly acceptable timing sources. The five are discussed later.
Line Timing: Devices in the network derive their timing signal from the arriving input signal from another SONET device. For example, an add-drop multiplexer that sits out on a customer s premises derives its synchronization pulse from the incoming bit stream, and might provide further timing to a piece of CPE that is out beyond the ADM. Loop Timing: Loop timing is somewhat similar to Line Timing; in loop timing, the device at the end of the loop is most likely a terminal multiplexer. External Timing: The device has the luxury of deriving its timing signal directly from a Stratum 1 clock source. Through-Timing: Similar to line timing, a device that is throughtimed receives its synchronization signal from the incoming bit stream, but then forwards that timing signal on to other devices in the network. The timing signal then passes through the intermediate device. Free Running: In free running timing systems, the SONET equipment in question does not have access to an external timing signal, and must derive its timing from internal sources only.
One final point about SONET should be made. When the standard is deployed over ring topologies, two timing techniques are used. Either external timing sources are depended upon to time network elements, or one device on the ring is internally timed (free running) while all the others are through-timed.
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