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Clearly, SONET is a complex and highly capable standard designed to provide high-bandwidth transport for legacy and new protocol types alike. The overhead that it provisions has the ability to deliver a remarkable collection of network management, monitoring, and transport granularity. The European Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, or SDH, shares many of SONET s characteristics, as we will now see. SONET, you will recall, is a limited North American standard, for the most part. SDH, on the other hand, provides high-bandwidth transport for the rest of the world.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Most books on SONET and SDH cite a common list of reasons for their proliferation, including a recognition of the importance of the global marketplace and a desire on the parts of manufacturers, therefore, to provide devices that will operate in both SONET and SDH environments; the global expansion of ring architectures; a greater focus on network management and the value that it brings to the table; and massive, unstoppable demand for more bandwidth. To those, add these: increasing demand for high-speed routing capability to work hand-inglove with transport; deployment of DS1, DS3, and E1 interfaces directly to the enterprise customer as access solutions; growth in demand for broadband access technologies such as cable modems, the many flavors of DSL, and two-way satellite connectivity; the ongoing replacement of traditional circuit-switched network fabrics with packetbased transport and mesh architectures; a renewed focus on the SONET and SDH overhead with an eye toward using it more effectively; and convergence of multiple applications on a single, capable, high-speed network fabric.
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SDH Nomenclature
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Before launching into a functional description of SDH, it would be good to first cover the differences in naming convention between the two. This will help to dispel confusion (hopefully!). The fundamental SONET unit of transport uses a nine-row by 90column frame that comprises three columns of section and line overhead, one column of path overhead, and 87 columns of payload. The payload, which is primarily user data, is carried in a payload envelope that can be formatted in various ways to make it carry a variety of payload types. For example, multiple SONET STS-1 frames can be combined to create higher-rate systems for transporting multiple STS-1 streams, or a single higher-rate stream created from the combined bandwidth of the various multiplexed components. Conversely, SONET can transport subrate payloads, known as virtual tributaries, which operate at rates slower than the fundamental STS-1 SONET rate. When this is done, the payload envelope is divided into virtual tributary groups, which can in turn transport a variety of virtual tributary types. In the SDH world, similar words apply, but they are different enough that they should be discussed. As you will see, SDH uses a fundamental transport container that is three times the size of its SONET counterpart. It is a nine-row by 270-column frame that can be configured into
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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3
one of five container types, typically written C-n (where C means container ). N can be 11, 12, 2, 3, or 4; they are designed to transport a variety of payload types. When an STM-1 is formatted for the transport of virtual tributaries (known as virtual containers in the SDH world), the payload pointers must be modified. In the case of a payload that is carrying virtual containers, the pointer is known as an Administrative Unit type 3 (AU-3). If the payload is not structured to carry virtual containers, but is instead intended for the transport of higher rate payloads, then the pointer is known as an Administrative Unit type 4. Generally speaking, an AU-3 is typically used for the transport of North American Digital Hierarchy payloads; AU-4 is used for European signal types.
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