visual basic barcode program The init( ) Method in Java

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The init( ) Method
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Like all applets, the init( ) method is called when the applet first starts execution. This method performs four main tasks:
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1. It changes the layout manager to GridBagLayout. 2. It instantiates the various GUI components. 3. It adds the components to the grid bag. 4. It adds action listeners for the components.
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Let s now look at init( ) line by line. The init( ) method begins with these lines of code:
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// Use a grid bag layout. GridBagLayout gbag = new GridBagLayout(); GridBagConstraints gbc = new GridBagConstraints(); setLayout(gbag);
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For many small applets, the default flow layout is perfectly acceptable. However, because the financial applets require the user to enter several values, it is necessary to take a bit more control over how the components are arranged within the applet window. A good way to do this is to use a grid bag layout, which is specified by the GridBagLayout class. What makes the grid bag useful is that you can specify the relative placement of components by specifying their positions in a grid. The key to the grid bag is that each component can be a different size, and each row in the grid can have a different number of columns. This is why the layout is called a grid bag. It s a collection of small grids joined together. The location and size of each component in a grid bag are determined by a set of constraints that are linked to it. The constraints are contained in an object of type GridBagConstraints. Constraints include the height and width of a component, its alignment, and its anchor point.
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Next, init( ) creates the label components, text fields, and Compute button, as shown here:
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Label heading = new Label("Compute Monthly Loan Payments"); Label Label Label Label amountLab = new Label("Principal"); periodLab = new Label("Years"); rateLab = new Label("Interest Rate"); paymentLab = new Label("Monthly Payments");
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amountText = new TextField(16); periodText = new TextField(16); paymentText = new TextField(16); rateText = new TextField(16); // Payment field for display only. paymentText.setEditable(false); doIt = new Button("Compute");
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Notice that the text field that displays the monthly payment is set to read-only by calling setEditable(false). This causes the field to be grayed. Next, the grid bag constraints for each component are set by the following code sequence:
// Define the grid bag. gbc.weighty = 1.0; // use a row weight of 1 gbc.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER; gbc.anchor = GridBagConstraints.NORTH; gbag.setConstraints(heading, gbc); // Anchor most components to the right. gbc.anchor = GridBagConstraints.EAST; gbc.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.RELATIVE; gbag.setConstraints(amountLab, gbc); gbc.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER; gbag.setConstraints(amountText, gbc); gbc.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.RELATIVE; gbag.setConstraints(periodLab, gbc); gbc.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER; gbag.setConstraints(periodText, gbc); gbc.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.RELATIVE; gbag.setConstraints(rateLab, gbc);
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gbc.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER; gbag.setConstraints(rateText, gbc); gbc.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.RELATIVE; gbag.setConstraints(paymentLab, gbc); gbc.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER; gbag.setConstraints(paymentText, gbc); gbc.anchor = GridBagConstraints.CENTER; gbag.setConstraints(doIt, gbc);
Although this seems a bit complicated at first glance, it really isn t. Just remember that each row in the grid is specified separately. Here is how the sequence works. First, the weight of each row, contained in gbc.weighty, is set to 1. This tells the grid bag to distribute extra space evenly when there is more vertical space than needed to hold the components. Next, the gbc.gridwidth is set to REMAINDER, and gbc.anchor is set to NORTH. The label referred to by heading is added by calling setConstraints( ) on gbag. This sequence sets the location of heading to the top of the grid (north) and gives it the remainder of the row. Thus, after this sequence executes, the heading will be at the top of the window and on a row by itself. Next, the four text fields and their labels are added. First, gbc.anchor is set to EAST. This causes each component to be aligned to the right. Next, gbc.gridWidth is set to RELATIVE, and the label is added. Then, gbc.gridWidth is set to REMAINDER, and the text field is added. Thus, each text field and label pair occupies one row. This process repeats until all four text field and label pairs have been added. Finally, the Compute button is added in the center. After the grid bag constraints have been set, the components are actually added to the window by the following code:
// Add all the components. add(heading); add(amountLab); add(amountText); add(periodLab); add(periodText); add(rateLab); add(rateText); add(paymentLab); add(paymentText); add(doIt);
Next, action listeners are registered for the three input text fields and the Compute button, as shown here:
// Register to receive action events. amountText.addActionListener(this); periodText.addActionListener(this);
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