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10: AI-Based Problem Solving
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if(flights[i].distance > dist) { pos = i; dist = flights[i].distance; } } } if(pos != -1) { flights[pos].skip = true; // prevent reuse FlightInfo f = new FlightInfo(flights[pos].from, flights[pos].to, flights[pos].distance); return f; } return null; }
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The find( ) routine now searches the entire database, looking for the connection that is farthest away from the departure city. The entire hill-climbing program follows:
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// Find connections using hill climbing. import java.util.*; import java.io.*; // Flight information. class FlightInfo { String from; String to; int distance; boolean skip; // used in backtracking FlightInfo(String f, String t, int d) { from = f; to = t; distance = d; skip = false; } } class Hill { final int MAX = 100; // This array holds the flight information.
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FlightInfo flights[] = new FlightInfo[MAX]; int numFlights = 0; // number of entries in flight array Stack btStack = new Stack(); // backtrack stack public static void main(String args[]) { String to, from; Hill ob = new Hill(); BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in)); ob.setup(); try { System.out.print("From "); from = br.readLine(); System.out.print("To "); to = br.readLine(); ob.isflight(from, to); if(ob.btStack.size() != 0) ob.route(to); } catch (IOException exc) { System.out.println("Error on input."); } } // Initialize the flight database. void setup() { addFlight("New York", "Chicago", 900); addFlight("Chicago", "Denver", 1000); addFlight("New York", "Toronto", 500); addFlight("New York", "Denver", 1800); addFlight("Toronto", "Calgary", 1700); addFlight("Toronto", "Los Angeles", 2500); addFlight("Toronto", "Chicago", 500); addFlight("Denver", "Urbana", 1000); addFlight("Denver", "Houston", 1000); addFlight("Houston", "Los Angeles", 1500);
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addFlight("Denver", "Los Angeles", 1000); } // Put flights into the database. void addFlight(String from, String to, int dist) { if(numFlights < MAX) { flights[numFlights] = new FlightInfo(from, to, dist); numFlights++; } else System.out.println("Flight database full.\n"); } // Show the route and total distance. void route(String to) { Stack rev = new Stack(); int dist = 0; FlightInfo f; int num = btStack.size(); // Reverse the stack to display route. for(int i=0; i < num; i++) rev.push(btStack.pop()); for(int i=0; i < num; i++) { f = (FlightInfo) rev.pop(); System.out.print(f.from + " to "); dist += f.distance; } System.out.println(to); System.out.println("Distance is " + dist); } /* If there is a flight between from and to, return the distance of flight; otherwise, return 0. */ int match(String from, String to) { for(int i=numFlights-1; i > -1; i--) { if(flights[i].from.equals(from) && flights[i].to.equals(to) &&
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!flights[i].skip) { flights[i].skip = true; // prevent reuse return flights[i].distance; } } return 0; // not found } // Given from, find the farthest away connection. FlightInfo find(String from) { int pos = -1; int dist = 0; for(int i=0; i < numFlights; i++) { if(flights[i].from.equals(from) && !flights[i].skip) { // Use the longest flight. if(flights[i].distance > dist) { pos = i; dist = flights[i].distance; } } } if(pos != -1) { flights[pos].skip = true; // prevent reuse FlightInfo f = new FlightInfo(flights[pos].from, flights[pos].to, flights[pos].distance); return f; } return null; } // Determine if there is a route between from and to. void isflight(String from, String to) { int dist; FlightInfo f;
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10: AI-Based Problem Solving
// See if at destination. dist = match(from, to); if(dist != 0) { btStack.push(new FlightInfo(from, to, dist)); return; } // Try another connection. f = find(from); if(f != null) { btStack.push(new FlightInfo(from, to, f.distance)); isflight(f.to, to); } else if(btStack.size() > 0) { // Backtrack and try another connection. f = (FlightInfo) btStack.pop(); isflight(f.from, f.to); } } }
When the program is run, the solution is
From New York To Los Angeles New York to Denver to Los Angeles Distance is 2800
This is quite good! The route contains the minimal number of stops on the way (only one), and it is the shortest route. Thus, it found the best possible route. However, if the Denver to Los Angeles connection did not exist, the solution would not be quite so good. It would be New York to Denver to Houston to Los Angeles a distance of 4300 miles! In this case, the solution would climb a false peak, because the connection to Houston would not take us closer to the goal of Los Angeles. Figure 10-7 shows the first solution as well as the path to the false peak.
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