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The object hierarchy of the iPhone OS
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Within these frameworks, you can access an immense wealth of classes arranged in a huge hierarchy. You ll see many of these used throughout this book, and you ll find a listing of even more in appendix A. Figure 2.5 shows many of the classes that you ll use over the next several chapters, arranged in a hierarchy. They re just a fraction of what s available.
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THE NS CLASSES
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Learning Objective-C and the iPhone OS SDK
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The NS classes come from Core Services NSObject Foundation framework (the Cocoa equivalent of the Core Foundation frameNSSet NSIndexPath NSString UIViewController work), which contains a huge number of NSArray UIResponder NSDictionary fundamental data types and other objects. UIView UIApplication You should use the fundamental UIControl UIScrollView UITableView Cocoa classes like NSString and NSArray whenever you can, rather than C fundaUIButton UISlider mentals like char* or a plain array. This is because they tend to play nicely with each Figure 2.5 This hierarchy graph shows just a other and with the UIKit frameworks, and small selection of the classes available in the iPhone OS. therefore you re less likely to encounter bizarre errors. Although it isn t shown, NSNumber is another class you should be aware of. Although it shouldn t be used in place of an ordinary number, it serves as a great wrapper when you need a number expressed as an object. This is especially useful for sending numbers via message passing. NSNumber is capable of holding many sorts of numerical values, from floats to integers and more. The objects that can hold collections of values like NSArray (a numerical array) and NSDictionary (an associative array) are picky about your sticking to their NS brethren. You ll need to wrap C variables inside Cocoa classes whenever you hand off objects to these arrays. Finally, though NSString can take many sorts of objects when you re formatting a string, you should be aware that Cocoa objects may require a different formatting string than their C equivalents. In two situations, you ll find that these NS classes can be a deficit. First, if you re using the Core Foundation framework, you ll often have to take advantage of toll-free bridging by casting variables, as you ll see starting in chapter 9, when we look at the Address Book. Second, if you re using external APIs, you may need to convert some classes into their C equivalents. 9 s look at the SQLite API explores this possibility, with NSString objects often being converted to their UTF-8 equivalent. The most important of Cocoa s Foundation objects is NSObject, which contains a lot of default behavior, including methods for object creation and memory management; you ll learn about these later in this chapter.
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THE UI CLASSES
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The second broad category contains the UI classes. These come from Cocoa Touch s UIKit framework, which includes all the graphical objects you ll be using as well as all the functionality for the iPhone OS s event model, much of which appears in UIResponder. That s another topic we ll return to soon.
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As the UI classes demonstrate, the iPhone OS is deeply rooted in the idea of a graphical user interface. Therefore, let s finish our introduction to the iPhone OS by looking
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Introducing the iPhone OS
at some of the main graphical abstractions embedded in the UIKit. There are three major abstractions: windows, views, and view controllers. A window is something that spans the device s entire screen. An application has only one, and it s the overall container for everything your application does. A view is the content holder in your application. You may have several of them, each covering different parts of the window or doing different things at different times. They re all derived from the UIView class. But don t think of a view as a blank container. Almost any object you use from the UIKit will be a subclass of UIView that features a lot of behavior of its own. Among the major subclasses of UIView are UIControl, which gives you buttons, sliders, and other items with which users may manipulate your program, and UIScrollableView, which gives users access to more text than can appear at once. A view controller does what its name suggests. It acts as the controller element of the Model-View-Controller triad and in the process manages a view, sometimes called an application view. As such, it takes care of events and updating for your view. In this book, we ve divided view controllers into two types. Basic view controllers manage a screenful of information (such as the table view controller), whereas advanced view controllers let a user move around among several subviews (such as the navigation bar controller and the tab bar controller). Figure 2.6 shows how these three types of objects interrelate. Windows, views, and view controllers are ultimately part of a view hierarchy. This is a tree of objects that begins with the window at its root. A simple program may have a
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