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Kuhn shows how, in case after case, scientific discovery precedes the acceptance of a theory to explain that discovery. For example, once there were many competing theories of electricity. Then Benjamin Franklin successfully showed that electricity flowed between objects. Only then did other scientists accept the fluid theory of electricity over the other competing theories. It was Franklin s concrete achievements, not his ideas, that won them over. Today, scientists know that electricity is not really a fluid and that it doesn t really flow, but the fluid theory still works for most everyday uses of electricity, if not for further advances in electrical sciences. As for Kuhn s second key observation, he tells us that the unit of scientific achievement is the solved problem. Experts do not simply apply a mass of past information to the present situation; they carry the past forward in units of achievement. Thus, Napoleon looked to the campaigns of the great captains that is, to their achievements. He applied those achievements in different combinations to his own battles. Von Clausewitz called those achievements examples from history. And Kroc saw the original McDonald s as a single achievement, not as a mass of information or as an application of a theory. Other scientists did not just take up the mass of Franklin s ideas; they repeated and modified his successful experiments, using and adapting the same equipment. Kuhn makes a direct link between intuition and expertise based on past achievements:
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Intuitions are not individual . . . they are the tested and shared possessions of the members of a successful group, and the novice acquires them through training as part of his preparation for group-membership.
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This group activity constitutes normal science, which to Kuhn means research firmly based on one or more past scientific achievements. For Kuhn, the scientific method starts with scientists noticing the achievements of other scientists. Their expert intuition then suggests a way to build on those achievements. They try a new combination. Whether that combination produces
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further achievements is unpredictable, but once new achievements happen, other scientists study those achievements and build further on their success. And so Sir Isaac Newton, the founder of modern physics, declared, If I have seen farther, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. Those giants included Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Vi te, Wallis, and van Schooten. They were the equivalent of Napoleon s great captains. It was their achievements, not their ideas, that Newton built on for his own success. We find a similar view from Sir Peter Medawar, winner of the 1960 Nobel Prize in medicine:
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Everything that a scientist does is a function of what others have done before him: the past is embodied in every new conception and even in the possibility of its being conceived at all.22
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Medawar echoes Roger Bacon, one of the founders of the scientific method in the thirteenth century:
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At first one should believe those who have made experiments or who have faithful testimony from others who have done so . . . experience follows second, and reason comes third.23
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This is the true scientific method. Ray Kroc and Steven Jobs were good scientists, because they adopted a new course of action upon discovering the specific achievements of other scientists: the McDonald brothers and Xerox. But how do you know what is an achievement and what is not Kuhn tells us that scientists rely on evidence, or persuasion rather than proof. Scientists know that they never prove anything. Instead, they try to provide enough evidence to persuade their fellow scientists to accept their results. Mathematics is the only branch of knowledge that yields proofs i.e., in which perfect logic reigns. Science, in contrast, requires measuring what happens in the real world, an approximate task at best.24 And so we are back to imperfect information, where we began. Expert intuition cuts through the fog of science to pick out cer-
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