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172 Plumbing
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For most of the day, the drainpipes are empty. The wastes flow down the drain by means of gravity. Consequently, the main house drain in the basement must have a steady downward pitch leading directly to the sewer or septic tank. Look at the drain line. If there is a low point along the length of the pipe, there is a problem. (See FIG. 13-10.) The low point in the pipe will allow grease and sewage solids to settle and eventually block the pipe. This condition is a violation of the plumbing code and must be corrected. When inspecting the drainpipes, look for signs of current and past problems such as cracked and patched sections, improper pitch, and leakage. One question that I am asked fairly often by prospective buyers is Can we put a bathroom in the basement The only difficulty in installing a bathroom is how to handle the drainage, which must flow by gravity. If the house drain is connected to the sewer at a level above the basement floor, the wastes from the fixtures will have to be pumped up to the house drain so that they can flow out to the sewer. If there is a bathroom in the basement, check to see if the wastewater drainage discharges into a sewer ejector tank. The tank is normally located in an
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unfinished area of the basement. Since the tank is installed below the floor slab, the only portions visible are the top cover and the associated discharge and vent pipes. The cover should be gasketed and tightly secured to the tank, and there should be adequate seals around the pipe penetrations. There should also be a gate valve and a check valve on the discharge line. A float switch controls the ejector pump. You can check the operation of the pump by flushing the toilet and then letting water run in the sink until the pump is activated. Another approach, although one that is not approved by most building codes, is to use a specially designed toilet that can lift the wastes about 10 feet without the use of a pump. It uses water pressure. This toilet is moderately priced. However, it is quite sensitive and if used for anything other than human wastes and toilet paper, it can become clogged. If only a sink is desired in the basement, a simple, inexpensive lift pump can be used to lift the waste water to the house drain. When the house drain is located below the basement floor slab, connecting the fixture drains to the house drain will require breaking up sections of the floor. To minimize the installation cost, the proposed bathroom should be
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Fig. 13-10. Low point in drainpipe can cause solid wastes to build up and block the flow.
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Basement inspection 173
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located near the existing drain line. In some cases, when the drain line is at or just below the basement floor surface, the toilet is located on a platform to facilitate the connection.
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When domestic water is not supplied by a utility company, it will be supplied by a private well-pumping system that includes a well pump, storage tank, and pressure switch. Wells As explained in chapter 6, part of the water hitting the surface of the earth as rain, snow, hail, or sleet seeps into the ground and percolates down until it hits an impermeable rock strata through which it cannot penetrate. The water then flows along the strata until it eventually reaches the ocean or a river, which can be more than a thousand miles away. The underground flow is not like a running stream but more like a turtle climbing a rock pile. The water flows through the pores and cracks of rock formations, sometimes surfacing along the way as a river or lake. The water composing this underground flow is groundwater, the top surface of which is commonly called the water table. Subsurface rock formations that readily yield the groundwater to wells are aquifers. There are two types of wells shallow and deep wells. A well that draws from an aquifer located less than 25 feet below the earth s surface is a shallow well. When the aquifer is more than 25 feet below the earth s surface, the well is a deep well. Wells over 500 feet deep are not uncommon. Because of the proximity of the surface, shallow wells are vulnerable to contamination from cesspools, malfunctioning septic systems, barnyard manure, and industrial waste disposal. Deep wells, although less vulnerable to contamination, can also become polluted. Bacterial and chemical pollutants move down174 Plumbing
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ward in the soil until they reach the water table and then flow with the groundwater. To a large extent, the soil acts as a natural water purifier for bacterial contamination by filtering small suspended solids and allowing large pollutant particles to settle out. In addition, bacterial pollutants tend to die after a period of time; their life spans are usually short in the unfavorable conditions found in the soil. Chemical pollution of the water source, however, can persist for years. I recently read a newspaper article about a toxic chemical solvent, trichlorethylene (TCE), that was contaminating the water supply of seventeen private wells. The solvent, which is used for thinning paint or removing grease, can cause neurological problems if inhaled or ingested in high concentrations. The source for the contamination could not be determined. The local health commissioner, however, indicated that he thought it was the result of TCE being dumped in the area many years ago, prior to the homes being built. Water that has a foul taste or odor and appears dirty may be completely potable, whereas water that is very clear and has a good taste may be polluted. You cannot tell by looking at it or tasting it whether the water is contaminated. As a precautionary measure, well water should be analyzed once a year for both bacterial and chemical pollutants. If the house has a well, have the water analyzed prior to contract closing. Well pumps The purpose of the pump is to draw water from the well and push it through the distribution piping with sufficient force that the water overcomes the frictional resistance of the pipes and provides an adequate flow at fixtures. There are three basic types of well pumps used for residential structures: submersible, jet, and piston. All three can be used for shallow or deep wells. The submersible pump, how-
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ever, is most frequently used for deep wells. In shallow wells, the jet or piston pumping mechanism is not located in the water. It is located on top of the well. The water is drawn up to the pump by a suction action, not unlike drinking through a straw. A suction will result in a pipe immersed in a body of water when the pressure inside the pipe is reduced below atmospheric pressure (vacuum). Under ideal conditions, the maximum suction lift is 34 feet. However, because of pump inefficiencies and frictional resistance of the pipe walls, the practical limit of suction lift is 25 feet, which is used in defining a shallow well. A deep well, therefore, is one in which water is pumped from a depth that exceeds 25 feet. Well pumps and their accessory equipment are usually very reliable. Nevertheless, all well-pumping systems require occasional repair or replacement. The projected life expectancy of a pump is seven to ten years, although many pumps run without trouble for twenty to thirty years. Piston pump These pumps are no longer in general use, although they might be found in older homes. Basically, they are motorized versions of the old hand pump. A motor drives the piston that alternately sucks water into the cylinder and then discharges it on every other stroke. In a shallow well, the pump (motor-piston assembly) is above the ground. In a deep well, the motor is above the ground, and the piston assembly is located in the well. Usually the motor is connected to the piston assembly by a belt and pulley. Inspect the belt for partially torn and frayed sections and adequate tension. Look for signs of leakage around casing joints and the piston rod. There should be none. An overall evaluation of any pumping system must include an inspection of the accessory equipment, which is discussed later in this chapter. Jet pump The jet pump consists of a jet assembly and a centrifugal pump. The centrifu-
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gal pump can be thought of as a small paddle wheel driven by a motor. As the wheel turns, it imparts energy to the water, increasing its velocity and pressure. A portion of the water discharging from the centrifugal pump is diverted to the jet assembly, which has no moving parts. However, it uses this recirculated water to perform two functions. It creates a suction that draws well water into the assembly and pushes this water back up to the centrifugal pump. After passing through the pump, some of the water is again rediverted to the jet assembly and the remainder directed to the plumbing system for distribution. You can tell whether the pump is a shallow-well or deep-well jet pump by the number of pipes extending into the well. The basic difference between the two pumps is the location of the jet assembly. In a shallow-well jet pump, the jet assembly is built into the centrifugal pump casing and has only one pipe extending into the well. In a deep-well jet pump, the jet assembly must be located within the well (so that the suction lift does not exceed 25 feet). In this case, there are two pipes extending into the well. (See FIG. 13-11.) In areas where the temperature drops below freezing, proper weather protection of jet pumps is important. According to Gould Pumps, Inc., frozen pumps represent one of the most common reasons for pump replacement. Submersible pump A submersible pump consists of an electrically driven centrifugal pump designed so that both the electric motor and the pump can operate under water. This pump is intended for placement directly in the well and is used primarily for deep wells. However, it can also be used for shallow wells. Water is drawn into the unit through screened openings located between the motor and the pump. A single discharge pipe is connected to the top of the pump and runs to the storage tank, which is usually found in the lower level of the house. When Well-pumping systems 175
Fig. 13-11. Jet pumps: left shallow-well jet pump, one pipe extending into well; right deep-well jet pump, two pipes extending into well. Gould Pumps, Inc.
inspecting the pumping system, you will not see the pump, only the accessory equipment. (See FIG. 13-12.) Because the electric motor is located in the well, in those areas where electrical storms are frequent, it is advisable to have a lightning arrester at the motor power supply. This will conduct high-voltage surges from the line to the ground before they enter and damage the motor. Submersible pumps have the advantage of quiet, dependable operation. They are relatively maintenance-free and are more efficient than jet or piston pumps. However, if a problem develops with the pump or motor, the entire unit must be withdrawn from the well.
Accessory equipment For a private well-pumping system to provide water service comparable to that offered by a utility company, accessory equipment is needed. Storage tanks The pump discharge line must be connected to a storage tank. The tank, also called a pressure tank, is generally located on the lower level of the house but might also be located in an outside pump house. Water from the tank is forced into the house supply pipe whenever there is a demand at one of the plumbing fixtures. A properly functioning tank provides a water reservoir that balances the capacity of the pump against the usage
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