Concrete pools in Visual Studio .NET

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Concrete pools
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Concrete pools can be constructed using any of four methods: shotcrete, gunite, poured
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concrete, and concrete block. Both shotcrete and gunite are applied and sprayed from a hose that is directed behind, over, and above previously installed reinforcing rods (rebars). (See FIG. 18-1.) Shotcrete is premixed wet concrete, and gunite is a dry mix, which combines with water as it discharges from the hose. The spraying of the concrete mix allows complete freedom of size and shape because it can follow the contours of any excavated shape. Poured concrete and concrete block walls are more restrictive with regard to the shape of the pool. Whichever method is used to construct the shell, an interior finish must be applied to provide a waterproof surface. The most common finish used on a concrete pool is plaster. It gives a smooth finish to the pool and also provides a nonskid walking surface. (See FIG. 18-2.) The projected life of a plaster finish is about 7 to 10 years depending on how well the pool and water quality has been maintained over the years. In many homes where the pool and the chemistry of
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Concrete pools 243
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Fig. 18-1. Gunite being sprayed around reinforcing rods for a concrete swimming pool.
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Fig. 18-2. Plaster finish being applied to a concrete pool.
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the water have been diligently maintained, the plaster finish has lasted considerably longer. Other finishes are paint, fiberglass coating, and ceramic tile. Tile is by far the most expensive; so most homeowners opt for a decorative ribbon of tile above the water line. The top edge of the pool shell is covered with coping, which prevents water from getting behind the shell. It can also serve as a handhold for swimmers and as a shove-off point 244 Swimming pools
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into the water. The coping can be in the form of precast coping stones, flagstones, or brick, or it can even be the extension of a concrete deck over the edge of the pool shell.
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Vinyl-lined pools
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The advent of vinyl-lined pools brought the ownership of swimming pools to within the reach of many families. Construction of the pool
shell consists of two phases: building of the perimeter frame or sidewalls and installing the liner. The most common sidewall panels are galvanized steel or aluminum. The frame must be structurally adequate to support the various forces exerted on the pool. After the sidewalls are bolted together, the bracing is installed. (See FIG. 18-3.) Then the area around the bracing is backfilled so that it is flush with the surrounding terrain. The sidewalls must have a smooth surface so as not to abrade the vinyl. They also don t have to be waterproof since the vinyl lining is. Prior to installing the liner, the base must be prepared. The bottom of the liner generally rests on a 2- to 3-inch sand base, and the top is secured with a special coping. The life of a vinyl liner is affected by the sun s ultraviolet light and the chemistry of the water. Manufacturers generally guarantee a liner against defective workmanship for 10 years. As vinyl pool liners age, the material becomes less supple and more prone to leaks from cracks or damage. It is possible to patch a small hole in a vinyl pool with a similar vinyl sheet material and a waterproof adhesive. Patching, if done correctly, can be effective, but once a liner has reached the age when several patches are needed, it is worth considering replacing the liner.
Aboveground pools are also vinyl lined. They are considered portable pools in that they can be dismantled and moved to a new location; however, many pools are partially or fully surrounded by a deck and are more permanent. The walls of the pool must be selfsupporting and capable of withstanding the pressure being exerted on them by the water. The walls are usually galvanized steel, plastic, or aluminum and are 48 or 52 inches high. Because of the height of the walls, most municipalities do not require a safety fence surrounding the pool.
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