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A variable name represents the value stored by the variable. You can use the value by using the variable name. For example, the value of var2 is retrieved from memory and placed at the position of the variable name, like so: Console.WriteLine("{0}", var2);
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Classes: The Basics
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Overview of Classes Programs and Classes: A Quick Example Declaring a Class Class Members Creating Variables and Instances of a Class Allocating Memory for the Data Instance Members Access Modifiers Accessing Members from Inside the Class Accessing Members from Outside the Class Putting It All Together
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CHAPTER 4 CLASSES: THE BASICS
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Overview of Classes
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In the previous chapter, you saw that C# provides six user-defined types. The most important of these, and the one I will cover first, is the class. Since the topic of classes in C# is a large one, its discussion will be spread over the next several chapters.
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A Class Is an Active Data Structure
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Before the days of object-oriented analysis and design, programmers thought of a program as just a sequence of instructions. The focus at that time was on structuring and optimizing those instructions. With the advent of the object-oriented paradigm, the focus changed from optimizing instructions to organizing a program s data and functions into encapsulated sets of logically related data items and functions, called classes. A class is a data structure that can store data and execute code. It contains the following: Data members, which store data associated with the class or an instance of the class. Data members generally model the attributes of the real-world object the class represents. Function members, which execute code. Function members generally model the functions and actions of the real-world object the class represents. A C# class can have any number of data and function members. The members can be any combination of nine possible member types. These member types are shown in Table 4-1. The ones I will cover in this chapter fields and methods are checked in the table. Table 4-1. Types of Class Members
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Data Members Store Data
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Fields Constants
Function Members Execute Code
Methods Properties Constructors Destructors Operators Indexers Events
Note Classes are encapsulated sets of logically related data items and functions that generally represent
objects in the real world or a conceptual world.
CHAPTER 4 CLASSES: THE BASICS
Programs and Classes: A Quick Example
A running C# program is a group of interacting type objects, most of which are instances of classes. For example, suppose you have a program simulating a poker game. When it is running, it has an instance of a class called Dealer, whose job it is to run the game, and several instances of a class called Player, which represent the players of the game. The Dealer object stores such information as the current state of the card deck and the number of players. Its actions include shuffling the deck and dealing the cards. The Player class is very different. It stores such information as the player s name and the amount of money left to bet, and performs such actions as analyzing the player s current hand and placing bets. The running program is illustrated in Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1. The objects in a running program A real program would undoubtedly contain dozens of other classes besides Dealer and Player. These would include classes such as Card and Deck. Each class models some thing that is a component of the poker game.
Note A running program is a set of objects interacting with each other.
CHAPTER 4 CLASSES: THE BASICS
Declaring a Class
Although types int, double, and char are defined by C#, classes such as Dealer and Player, as you can probably guess, are not defined by the language. If you want to use them in a program, you will have to define them yourself. You do this by writing a class declaration. A class declaration defines the characteristics and members of a new class. It does not create an instance of the class, but creates the template from which class instances will be created. The class declaration provides the following: The class name The members of the class The characteristics of the class The following is an example of the minimum syntax for a class declaration. The curly braces contain the member declarations that make up the class body. Class members can be declared in any order inside the class body. This means that it is perfectly fine for the declaration of a member to refer to another member that is not yet defined until further down in the class declaration. Keyword Class name class MyExcellentClass { MemberDeclarations } For example, the following code shows the outlines of two class declarations: class Dealer { ... } class Player { ... } // Class declaration
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