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Variables must be assigned to, before being used as actual parameters (except in the case of output parameters, which I will cover shortly). For reference types, the variable can be assigned either a reference or null. 3 covered value types, which, as you will remember, are types that contain their own data. Don t be confused that I m now talking about value parameters. They are entirely different. Remember that value parameters are parameters where the value of the actual parameter is copied to the formal parameter.
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For example, the following code shows a method called MyMethod, which takes two parameters a variable of type MyClass and an int. The method adds 5 to both the field of the class and the int. You might also notice that MyMethod uses the modifier static, which hasn t been explained yet. You can ignore it for now. I ll talk about static methods in 6. class MyClass { public int Val = 20; }
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// Initialize the field to 20.
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class Program Formal parameters { static void MyMethod( MyClass f1, int f2 ) { f1.Val = f1.Val + 5; // Add 5 to field of f1 param. f2 = f2 + 5; // Add 5 to second param. } static void Main( ) { MyClass A1 = new MyClass(); int A2 = 10; MyMethod( A1, A2 ); Actual parameters // Call the method.
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Figure 5-7 illustrates the following about the values of the actual and formal parameters at various stages in the execution of the method: Before the method call, variables A1 and A2, which will be used as the actual parameters, are already on the stack. By the beginning of the method, the system has allocated space on the stack for the formal parameters and copied the values from the actual parameters. Since A1 is a reference type, the reference is copied, resulting in both the actual and formal parameters referring to the same object in the heap. Since A2 is a value type, the value is copied, producing an independent data item. At the end of the method, both f2 and the field of object f1 have been incremented by 5. After method execution, the formal parameters are popped off the stack. The value of A2, the value type, is unaffected by the activity in the method. The value of A1, the reference type, however, has been changed by the activity in the method.
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Figure 5-7. Value parameters
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Reference Parameters
The second type of parameter is called a reference parameter. When using a reference parameter, you must use the ref modifier in both the declaration and the invocation of the method. The actual parameter must be a variable, which must be assigned to before being used as the actual parameter. If it is a reference type variable, it can be assigned either a reference or the value null. For example, the following code illustrates the syntax of the declaration and invocation: Include the ref modifier. void MyMethod( ref int val ) { ... } int y = 1; MyMethod ( ref y ); Include the ref modifier. MyMethod ( ref 3+5 ); Must use a variable
// Method declaration
// Variable for the actual parameter // Method call
// Error!
Remember that for value parameters, the system allocates memory on the stack for the formal parameters. In contrast, reference parameters have the following characteristics: They do not allocate new memory on the stack for the formal parameters. Instead, a formal parameter name acts as an alias for the actual parameter variable, referring to the same memory location. Since the formal parameter name and the actual parameter name reference the same memory location, clearly any changes made to the formal parameter during method execution will be visible after the method is completed, through the actual parameter variable.
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