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Table 8-13. The Shift Operators
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Shifts the bit pattern left by the given number of positions. The bits shifted off the left end are lost. Bit positions opening up on the right are filled with 0s. Shifts the bit pattern right by the given number of positions. Bits shifted off the right end are lost.
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For the vast majority of programming in C#, you don t need to know anything about the hardware underneath. If you re doing bitwise manipulation of signed numbers, however, it can be helpful to know about the numeric representation. The underlying hardware represents signed binary numbers in a form called two s complement. In two s-complement representation, positive numbers have their normal binary form. To negate a number, you take the bitwise negation of the number and add 1 to it. This process turns a positive number into its negative representation and vice versa. In two s complement, all negative numbers have a 1 in the leftmost bit position. Figure 8-6 shows the negation of the number 12.
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Figure 8-6. To get the negation of a two s-complement number, take its bitwise negation and add 1. The underlying representation is important when shifting signed numbers because the result of shifting an integral value one bit to the left is the same as multiplying it by two. Shifting it to the right is the same as dividing it by two. If, however, you were to shift a negative number to the right, and the leftmost bit were to be filled with a 0, it would produce the wrong result. The 0 in the leftmost position would indicate a positive number. But this is incorrect, because dividing a negative number by 2 does not produce a positive number.
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CHAPTER 8 EXPRESSIONS AND OPERATORS
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To fix this situation, when the operand is a signed integer, if the leftmost bit of the operand is a 1 (indicating a negative number), bit positions opening up on the left are filled with 1s rather than 0s. This maintains the correct two s-complement representation. For positive or unsigned numbers, bit positions opening up on the left are filled with 0s. Figure 8-7 shows how the expression 14 << 3 would be evaluated in a byte. This operation causes the following: Each of the bits in the operand (14) is shifted three places to the left. The three bit positions vacated on the right end are filled with 0s. The resulting value is 112.
Figure 8-7. Example of left shift of three bits Figure 8-8 illustrates bitwise shift operations.
Figure 8-8. Bitwise shifts The following code implements the preceding examples: int a, b, x = 14; a = x << 3; b = x >> 3; // Shift left // Shift right
Console.WriteLine("{0} << 3 = {1}", x, a); Console.WriteLine("{0} >> 3 = {1}", x, b); This code produces the following output: 14 << 3 = 112 14 >> 3 = 1
CHAPTER 8 EXPRESSIONS AND OPERATORS
Assignment Operators
The assignment operators evaluate the expression on the right side of the operator and use that value to set the variable expression on the left side of the operator. The assignment operators are listed in Table 8-14. The assignment operators are binary and left-associative. Table 8-14. The Assignment Operators
Operator
= *= /= %= += -= <<= >>= &= ^= |=
Description
Simple assignment; evaluate the expression on the right and assign the returned value to the variable or expression on the left. Compound assignment; var *= expr is equal to var = var * (expr). Compound assignment; var /= expr is equal to var = var / (expr). Compound assignment; var %= expr is equal to var = var % (expr). Compound assignment; var += expr is equal to var = var + (expr). Compound assignment; var -= expr is equal to var = var - (expr). Compound assignment; var <<= expr is equal to var = var << (expr). Compound assignment; var >>= expr is equal to var = var >> (expr). Compound assignment; var &= expr is equal to var = var & (expr). Compound assignment; var ^= expr is equal to var = var ^ (expr). Compound assignment; var |= expr is equal to var = var | (expr).
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