// Declare 2-D array. // Write to the array. // Read from the array. in Visual C#.NET

Creating Data Matrix in Visual C#.NET // Declare 2-D array. // Write to the array. // Read from the array.

// Declare 2-D array. // Write to the array. // Read from the array.
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The following code shows the full process of creating and accessing a one-dimensional array: int[] myIntArray; myIntArray = new int[4]; for( int i=0; i<4; i++ ) myIntArray[i] = i*10; // Declare the array. // Instantiate the array. // Set the values.
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// Read and display the values of each element. for( int i=0; i<4; i++ ) Console.WriteLine("Value of element {0} = {1}", i, myIntArray[i]); This code produces the following output: Value Value Value Value of of of of element element element element 0 1 2 3 is is is is 0 10 20 30
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CHAPTER 14 ARRAYS
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Initializing an Array
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Whenever an array is created, each of the elements is automatically initialized to the default value for the type. The default values for the predefined types are 0 for integer types, 0.0 for floating point types, false for Booleans, and null for reference types. For example, the following code creates an array and initializes its four elements to the value 0. Figure 14-6 illustrates the layout in memory. int[] intArr = new int[4];
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Figure 14-6. Automatic initialization of a one-dimensional array
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Explicit Initialization of One-Dimensional Arrays
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For a one-dimensional array, you can set explicit initial values by including an initialization list immediately after the array-creation expression of an array instantiation. The initialization values must be separated by commas and enclosed in a set of curly braces. The dimension lengths are optional, since the compiler will infer the lengths from the number of initializing values. Notice that nothing separates the array-creation expression and the initialization list. That is, there is no equals sign or other connecting operator. For example, the following code creates an array and initializes its four elements to the values between the curly braces. Figure 14-7 illustrates the layout in memory. Initialization list int[] intArr = new int[] { 10, 20, 30, 40 }; No connecting operator
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Figure 14-7. Explicit initialization of a one-dimensional array
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CHAPTER 14 ARRAYS
Explicit Initialization of Rectangular Arrays
To explicitly initialize a rectangular array: Each vector of initial values must be enclosed in curly braces. Each dimension must also be nested and enclosed in curly braces. In addition to the initial values, the initialization lists and components of each dimension must also be separated by commas. For example, the following code shows the declaration of a two-dimensional array with an initialization list. Figure 14-8 illustrates the layout in memory. Initialization lists separated by commas int[,] intArray2 = new int[,] { {10, 1}, {2, 10}, {11, 9} } ;
Figure 14-8. Initializing a rectangular array
Syntax Points for Initializing Rectangular Arrays
Rectangular arrays are initialized with nested, comma-separated initialization lists. The initialization lists are nested in curly braces. This can sometimes be confusing, so to get the nesting, grouping, and commas right, the following tips can be helpful: Commas are used as separators between all elements and groups. Commas are not placed between left curly braces. Commas are not placed before a right curly brace. Read the rank specifications from left to right, designating the last number as elements and all the others as groups.
CHAPTER 14 ARRAYS
For example, read the following declaration as intArray has four groups of three groups of two elements. Initialization lists, nested and separated by commas int[,,] intArray = new int[4,3,2] { { {8, 6}, {5, 2}, {12, 9} }, { {6, 4}, {13, 9}, {18, 4} }, { {7, 2}, {1, 13}, {9, 3} }, { {4, 6}, {3, 2}, {23, 8} } };
Shortcut Syntax
When combining declaration, array creation, and initialization in a single statement, you can omit the array-creation expression part of the syntax. This shortcut syntax is shown in Figure 14-9.
Figure 14-9. Shortcut for array declaration, creation, and initialization
CHAPTER 14 ARRAYS
Implicitly Typed Arrays
So far we ve explicitly specified the array types at the beginnings of all our array declarations. Starting with C# 3.0, however, like other local variables, your arrays can be implicitly typed. What this means is the following: When initializing an array, you can let the compiler infer the array s type from the type of the initializers. This is allowed as long as all the initializers can be implicitly converted to a single type. Just as with implicitly typed local variables, use the keyword var instead of the array type. The following code shows explicit and implicit versions of three array declarations. The first set is a one-dimensional array of ints. The second is a two-dimensional array of ints. The third is an array of strings. Notice that in the declaration of implicitly typed intArr4 you still need to include the rank specifier in the initialization. Explicit int [] intArr1 var intArr2 Keyword int[,] intArr3 var intArr4 Explicit new int[] { 10, 20, 30, 40 }; new [] { 10, 20, 30, 40 }; Inferred new int[,] { { 10, 1 }, { 2, 10 }, { 11, 9 new [,] { { 10, 1 }, { 2, 10 }, { 11, 9 Rank specifier new string[] { "life", "liberty", "pursuit new [] { "life", "liberty", "pursuit
} }; } };
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