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TYPES, STORAGE, AND VARIABLES
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The Stack and the Heap
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While a program is running, its data must be stored in memory. How much memory is required for an item, and where and how it s stored, depends on its type. A running program uses two regions of memory to store data: the stack and the heap.
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The system takes care of all stack manipulation. You, as the programmer, don t need to do anything with it explicitly. But understanding its basic functions will give you a better understanding of what your program is doing when it s running and allow you to better understand the C# documentation and literature. The stack is an array of memory that acts as a last-in, first-out (LIFO) data structure. It stores several types of data: The values of certain types of variables The program s current execution environment Parameters passed to methods
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The general characteristics of stacks are the following: Data can be added to and deleted only from the top of the stack. Placing a data item at the top of the stack is called pushing the item onto the stack. Deleting an item from the top of the stack is called popping the item from the stack. Figure 3-6 illustrates the functions and terminology of the stack.
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Figure 3-6. Pushing and popping on the stack
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The heap is an area where chunks of memory are allocated to store certain kinds of data objects. Unlike the stack, memory can be stored and removed from the heap in any order. Figure 3-7 shows a program that has stored four items in the heap.
Figure 3-7. The memory heap Although your program can store items in the heap, it cannot explicitly delete them. Instead, the CLR s garbage collector (GC) automatically cleans up orphaned heap objects when it determines that your code is no longer accessing them. This frees you from what in other programming languages can be an error-prone task. Figure 3-8 illustrates the garbage collection process.
Figure 3-8. Automatic garbage collection in the heap
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Value Types and Reference Types
The type of a data item defines how much memory is required to store it and the data members that comprise it. The type also determines where an object is stored in memory the stack or the heap. Types are divided into two categories: value types and reference types. Objects of these types are stored differently in memory. Value types require only a single segment of memory, which stores the actual data. Reference types require two segments of memory: The first contains the actual data and is always located in the heap. The second is a reference that points to where in the heap the data is stored.
Data that is not a member of another type is stored as shown in Figure 3-9. For value types, data is stored on the stack. For reference types, the actual data is stored in the heap, and the reference is stored on the stack.
Figure 3-9. Storing data that is not part of another type
Storing Members of a Reference Type Object
Figure 3-9 shows how data is stored when it isn t a member of another type. When it s a member of another type, data might be stored a little differently. The data portion of a reference type object is always stored in the heap, as shown in Figure 3-9. A value type object, or the reference part of a reference type, can be stored in either the stack or the heap, depending on the circumstances.
Suppose, for example, that you have an instance of a reference type, called MyType, that has two members a value type member and a reference type member. How is it stored Is the value type member stored on the stack and the reference type split between the stack and the heap, as shown in Figure 3-9 The answer is no.
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