Spreading Namespaces Across Files in C#

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Spreading Namespaces Across Files
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The contents of a namespace don t need to be defined in a single code file. They can be spread out across multiple files and even multiple assemblies. This allows you to apply two levels of organization to your program; you can group related types into namespaces based on functionality and organize the individual code files to make development and maintenance easier. If you download the code samples for this book, you ll see that the Visual Studio solution for this chapter contains a project called Listing 08-09. In this project are two code files, Listing 08.cs and Listing 09.cs. Listing 11-8 shows the contents of the Listing 08.cs file, which contains the MyClass type from earlier examples. Listing 11-8. A Class That Relies on the Contents of a Nested Namespace in Another File using System; using MyNamespace.NestedNamespace;
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CHAPTER 11 NAMESPACES
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namespace MyNamespace { class MyClass { static void Main(string[] args) { int result = new AdditionHelper().AddIntegers(10, 20); Console.WriteLine("Result: {0}", result); // wait for input before exiting Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); Console.ReadLine(); } } } You can see that this class is using the AdditionHelper class from the nested namespace, even though neither the class nor the namespace is defined in this file. Listing 11-9 shows the contents of the Listing 09.cs file.
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Tip Although you can spread a namespace across multiple code files, the fully qualified name of each type must be unique. If you define two types in the same namespace with the same name (even in different code files), the compiler will generate an error.
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Listing 11-9. A Nested Namespace Defined in Its Own Class namespace MyNamespace.NestedNamespace { class AdditionHelper { internal int AddIntegers(int x, int y) { return x + y; } } } This is one of the nice features of namespaces. I can put the types in any of the files in my project using a convention that suits my needs, spreading the contents of a namespace across multiple files and multiple assemblies...whatever makes the most sense for organizing the contents of my program.
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CHAPTER 11 NAMESPACES
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Adding Types to Existing Namespaces
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There are no access modifiers for namespaces anyone can add types to any namespace. You just put the definition in your code file, and your types become part of the specified namespace. Listing 11-10 contains an example. Listing 11-10. Adding a Type to an Existing Namespace namespace System { class MyConsoleHelper { internal void PrintMessages() { Console.WriteLine("Hello World"); Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); } } } class Listing 10 { static void Main(string[] args) { // use the MyConsoelHelper class new System.MyConsoleHelper().PrintMessages(); // wait for input before exiting System.Console.ReadLine(); } } Listing 11-10 relies on the fact that namespaces can be spread across many assemblies to extend the System namespace, which is the home of the Console class. I have added a new class, called MyConsolerHelper, which has a helpful method that prints some messages to the console for me. Notice that because my new type is part of the System namespace, I can refer to the Console class using an unqualified name, in other words, without any part of the namespace. This is because the namespace that contains your type is implicitly imported as though you had used a using statement. Listing 11-10 also includes a class that uses the System.MyConsoleHelper type; you can see that there is no real different between using the Console class that Microsoft put into the System namespace and using the class that I added. Although you can add types to any namespace, there really isn t any benefit in adding your types to the namespaces defined by the .NET Framework class library. There are no protections to stop types from being added to namespaces because it doesn t grant you any special access or language features. In practical terms, you may as well define your own namespaces for your own types.
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