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CHAPTER 13 ARRAYS
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// wait for input before exiting Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); Console.ReadLine(); } }
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C# arrays implicitly implement interfaces from the Sytem.Collections and System.Collections.Generic namespaces. I cover collections in a later chapter and won t go into the detail in this chapter. Listing 1324 demonstrates using the IList<T> generic interface from the System.Collections.Generic namespace. Listing 13-24. Using an Array as a Collection using System; using System.Collections.Generic; class Listing 24 { static void Main(string[] args) { // define and populate an array string[] names = { "oranges", "apples", "guava", "peaches", "bananas", "grapes" }; // implicitly cast the array to an IList<T> IList<string> ilist = names; // access the array through the IList<T> members int index = ilist.IndexOf("apples"); // print out the result Console.WriteLine("Index: {0}", index); // wait for input before exiting Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); Console.ReadLine(); } }
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All the arrays so far in this chapter have been single-dimensional arrays, meaning that the arrays are like a long row of slots, where the allocated capacity determines how many slots there are. This was illustrated by Figure 13-2, which showed a single-dimensional array a capacity to hold four objects. Single-dimensional arrays are the type that programmers use most frequently. This is the simplest kind of array and allows you to collect related objects in a neat and efficient way. But C# also supports two kinds of multidimensional array, which allows you to capture more complex relationships between objects.
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A rectangular array is more like a table, with rows and columns. Figure 13-5 illustrates a rectangular array that has three rows and four columns; the indices for both rows and columns start with zero, just as for a single-dimensional array.
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Figure 13-5. A rectangular multidimensional array Defining a rectangular array requires a slight variation on the array syntax we have used so far in this chapter. Listing 13-25 demonstrates creating a rectangular array. Listing 13-25. Creating a Rectangular Array
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int[,] rectArray = new int[3, 4];
There are some differences in the notation, which are illustrated by Figure 13-6.
Figure 13-6. Defining a rectangular array The most obvious difference is the addition of the comma in the array notation on the left of the statement. Adding one comma creates a two-dimensional array (with rows and columns), and you can add additional commas to create arrays with three and more dimensions; see the Creating Rectangular Arrays with Additional Dimensions section later in this chapter for some examples.
CHAPTER 13 ARRAYS
Getting and Setting Rectangular Array Values
To get and set values in a rectangular array, you specify the row and column indices for the position in the table you want to work with, separated by a comma. Listing 13-26 contains a demonstration. Listing 13-26. Getting and Setting Values in a Two-Dimensional Rectangular Array using System; class Listing 26 { static void Main(string[] args) { // define a rectangular array of strings string[,] namesArray = new string[5, 5]; // set values in the array namesArray[2, 3] = "Oranges"; namesArray[2, 4] = "Apples"; // get a value from the array string val = namesArray[2, 4]; // wait for input before exiting Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); Console.ReadLine(); } }
Using Rectangular Array Initializers
As with single-dimensional arrays, you can define and populate an array in one statement. This is very useful if you know in advance what data you want to put into the array. Listing 13-27 contains an example. Listing 13-27. Populating a Two-Dimensional String Array using System; class Listing 27 { static void Main(string[] args) { // define and populate a rectangular array of strings string[,] namesArray = { {"apples", "oranges", "grapes", "pears"}, {"green", "orange", "red", "green"} }; // get a value from the array
CHAPTER 13 ARRAYS
string val = namesArray[1, 3]; Console.WriteLine("Value: {0}", val); // wait for input before exiting Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); Console.ReadLine(); } } To populate a rectangular array, you define the contents of each row, separated by a comma. The content of each row consists of the content for each column in that row, also separated by a column. The code in the listing creates an array with two rows and four columns.
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