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CHAPTER 15 GENERIC AND ANONYMOUS TYPES
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The statement in Listing 15-4 creates an instance of GenericStack<T>, which stores int values and assigns the object to a local variable. The type of the object that has been created and the variable to which the object has been assigned is GenericStack<int>. This is an important point not all objects created from the GenericStack<T> class are of the same type. I can create an object to work with string values, like this:
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GenericStack<string> stringStack = new GenericStack<string>();
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I have created an object that is a different type from the one that I created in Listing 15-4. The intStack object is a GenericStack<int>, and the stringStack object is a GenericStack<string>. See the Deriving from a Generic Base Class section later in this chapter for more details of how to work with the types created from using the generics feature.
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Implementing and Using Generic Class Members
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Now that we ve seen how the type parameter is transformed to a specific type, we can look at how to implement members in a generic class. Listing 15-5 contains the Push method from our GenericStack<T> class. Listing 15-5. A Generic Class Member public void Push(T value) { dataArray[currentPos++] = value; } We can refer to the generic type by using the name we gave to the type parameter, in this case T. The Push method takes an object of the generic type and adds it to the array called dataArray. As you can see in Listing 15-3, dataArray is defined using the type parameter name as well:
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T[] dataArray = new T[10];
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By using the type parameter in this way, we are saying that we don t know what the specific type will be, but that when an object is created from the generic class, we want an array that contains ten objects of that type should be created and a method called Push that will take an object of that type should exist. When we create an instance of GenericStack<int>, the method in Listing 15-5 will be transformed so that it takes an int parameter and the dataArray array will be created as an int[]. This transformation will occur at each place in the class where we have used the placeholder T. We cannot call any members of the generic type T other than those defined by object. This is because we don t know what type it is when we write the generic class, and all the C# compiler can be sure of is that every type has to be derived from object. The most commonly used examples of generic classes in .NET are the collection classes, which are described in 16. You can use the generic type in any class member. Listing 15-3 contains methods and fields that use the generic type. Listing 15-6 adds an indexer to our simple stack class. Listing 15-6. Adding Members to a Generic Class class GenericStack<T> { T[] dataArray = new T[10]; int currentPos = 0; public void Push(T value) {
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CHAPTER 15 GENERIC AND ANONYMOUS TYPES
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dataArray[currentPos++] = value; } public T Pop() { return dataArray[--currentPos]; } public T this[int index] { get { return dataArray[index]; } } } Not all the members in a generic class have to use the type parameter. As an example, the stack shown in Listing 15-7 adds a read-only property that uses regular types. Listing 15-7. Adding a Regular Member to a Generic Class class GenericStack<T> { T[] dataArray = new T[10]; int currentPos = 0; public void Push(T value) { dataArray[currentPos++] = value; } public T Pop() { return dataArray[--currentPos]; } public T this[int index] { get { return dataArray[index]; } } public int CurrentPosition { get { return currentPos; } } } When we create an object from a generic class, the transformation to substitute the type parameter in the class definition to the type we have requested is performed throughout the class. So, if we create an instance of GenericStack<int> from the GenericStack<T> class shown in Listing 15-7, every T in the class is replaced with int. This means that to use, say, the Pop method, we have to provide an int parameter. Listing 15-8 contains a demonstration of using a GenericStack<int> object.
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