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CHAPTER 16 STRINGS AND CHARACTERS
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myBuilder.Append(myBool.ToString());
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The ToString method is covered in the Formatting Strings section later in this chapter.
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Using the StringBuilder Indexer
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The last point of note for the StringBuilder class is that you can read and modify characters using a custom indexer. (By contrast, you can only read characters using the indexer implemented in the string class.) Listing 16-19 contains a simple demonstration. Listing 16-19. Reading and Writing Characters via the StringBuilder Indexer using System; using System.Text; class Listing 19 { static void Main(string[] args) { // create a string builder StringBuilder myBuilder = new StringBuilder("Introduction to C#"); // read some chars using the indexer for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) { Console.WriteLine("Char at index {0}: {1}", i, myBuilder[i]); } // change a character myBuilder[0] = 'Z'; // write out the contents of the StringBuilder object Console.WriteLine("Modified: {0}", myBuilder); // wait for input before exiting Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); Console.ReadLine(); } } Compiling and running Listing 16-19 produces the following results: Char at index 0: I Char at index 1: n Char at index 2: t Char at index 3: r Char at index 4: o Modified: Zntroduction to C# Press enter to finish
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CHAPTER 16 STRINGS AND CHARACTERS
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C# has comprehensive support for formatting strings through a feature called composite formatting. The following sections demonstrate how to use this feature to format strings in a range of different ways.
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The composite formatting feature is one that I have used in many of the examples in this book. You specify a string that contains one or more format items and an object or value for each of those items. The C# composite formatting feature will create a string representation for each object, which is used to replace the corresponding format item. Listing 16-20 contains an example of using the composite formatting feature. Listing 16-20. Using Composite Formatting using System; class Listing 20 { static void Main(string[] args) { string formatString = "My name is {0} and I live in {1}"; Console.WriteLine(formatString, "Adam", "London"); Console.WriteLine(formatString, "Jane", "New York"); // wait for input before exiting Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); Console.ReadLine(); } } Listing 16-20 is a basic composite formatting example. The string that contains the format items is illustrated in Figure 16-3.
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Figure 16-3. The anatomy of a basic format item string A format item is wrapped in brace characters ({ and }) and are numbered from zero onward. There are two format items contained in the string assigned to the formatString local variable in Listing 16-20, numbered 0 and 1. The static Console.WriteLine method supports the composite formatting feature and will accept a number of parameters. The first parameter to follow the string will be used for format item zero, the next for format item one, and so on. Consider the following statement taken from Listing 16-20:
CHAPTER 16 STRINGS AND CHARACTERS
Console.WriteLine(formatString, "Adam", "London");
In this statement, the string Adam is used for formatting item zero, and the string London is used to replace format item one, to produce the following composited string:
My name is Adam and I live in London
The string that contains the format items can be used with different parameters, which is demonstrated in Listing 16-20. Compiling and running Listing 16-20 produces the following results: My name is Adam and I live in London My name is Jane and I live in New York Press enter to finish Format items don t have to appear in sequence and can be used more than once. Here is an example: string myString = "{1} is the home city of {0}. {0} is {2} years old."; Console.WriteLine(myString, "Adam", "London", 38); The output from these statements is as follows:
London is the home city of Adam. Adam is 38 years old.
Other Composite Formatting Methods
The Console.WriteLine method isn t the only one that supports the composite formatting feature. The static string.Format and StringBuilder.AppendFormat instance method will also process a string for format items, as demonstrated by Listing 16-21. Listing 16-21. Using Other Composite Formatting Methods using System; using System.Text; class Listing 21 { static void Main(string[] args) { // define a string with format items string formatString = "My name is: {0}"; // use the static string.Format method string outputString = string.Format(formatString, "Adam"); Console.WriteLine("String.Format: {0}", outputString); // create an empty StringBuilder StringBuilder myBuilder = new StringBuilder();
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