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CHAPTER 16 STRINGS AND CHARACTERS
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return new CarFormatter(); } else { return null; } } } The IFormatProvider interface defines one method, called GetFormat. When this method is called, the composite formatting system is checking to see whether our custom formatting support is able to format a specific kind of object. We only want to support custom formatting, so we return null unless the parameter to the method is the ICustomFormatter type. If the parameter is the ICustomFormatter type, when we create and return a new instance of the CarFormatter class, which is an implementation of the ICustomFormatter interface and is shown in Listing 16-29. Listing 16-29. An Implementation of the ICustomFormatter Interface class CarFormatter : ICustomFormatter { public string Format(string format, object arg, IFormatProvider formatProvider) { // cast the object to a car Car myCar = (Car) arg; // create a string builder so we can compose the string StringBuilder myBuilder = new StringBuilder(); // switch on each character in the format component foreach (char c in format.ToUpper()) { switch (c) { case 'M': myBuilder.AppendFormat(" Manufacturer: {0}", myCar.Manufacturer); break; case 'O': myBuilder.AppendFormat(" Model: {0}", myCar.Model); break; case 'C': myBuilder.AppendFormat(" Color: {0}", myCar.Color); break; } } // return the contents of the StringBuilder as a string return myBuilder.ToString().Trim(); } } The ICustomFormatter class also has just one method, this time called Format. This method is called to format an object using a custom format component. The format component is passed as the format parameter, the object to format is passed as the object parameter, and the IFormatProvider that referred the composite formatting system to this implementation is passed as the formatProvider parameter. You have complete freedom in how you translate the custom format component into a string representation of the object. In Listing 16-29, the CarFormatter class looks for the three characters described at the start of this section and appends a sequence of characters to a StringBuilder, the contents of which are returned as the representation of the object at the end of the Format method.
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CHAPTER 16 STRINGS AND CHARACTERS
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The last step is to use our custom format component support. Some of the methods that support composite formatting also allow you to provide an implementation of the IFormatProvider interface as a parameter. The following code demonstrates doing this with the string.Format method: using System; class CustomFormatTest { static void Main(string[] args) { // create two Car objects Car myVolvo = new Car() { Manufacturer = "Volvo", Model = "C30", Color = "Black" }; // create a custom formatter CarFormatProvider formatProvider = new CarFormatProvider(); // use the custom formatter to format the object string outputString = string.Format(formatProvider, "Car Details: {0:CMO}", myVolvo); // write out the formatted string Console.WriteLine(outputString); // wait for input before exiting Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); Console.ReadLine(); } } The custom format component is shown in bold. I can omit or change the order of the characters in the format component to change the string representation of the Car object. Compiling and running this code produces the following output: Car Details: Color: Black Manufacturer: Volvo Model: C30 Press enter to finish
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Strings are important in any programming language, and C# is no exception. In this chapter, we looked at the C# support for individual characters and for strings, which represent sequences of characters. We saw how to use literal values to define character and string values and how to perform operations on both types. We explored the range of class members and operators available to make working with strings easier and looked at the System.Text.StringBuilder class, which is a mutable companion to the read-only System.String class. We finished the chapter by looking at the composite formatting feature, which allows strings to be composed by embedding format items in strings, which become placeholders for string representations of other objects. We saw how to format the built-in numeric types and how to create custom format components.
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