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// wait for input before exiting Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); Console.ReadLine(); } } } In the example, I create a SortedList<string, string> and add one key and value. I then call TryGetValue using the key I have inserted into the collection and again using a key that doesn t exist. Compiling and running the code in Listing 19-20 gives the following result: Result: True, Value: green Result: False, Value: Press enter to finish For the key that exists, the TryGetValue method returns true, and the out parameter is set to the associated value, in this case, green. For the key that doesn t exist, the TryGetValue method returns false, and the out parameter is set to the empty string, which is the default value for the string type.
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Other SortedList<TKey, TVal> Members
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The remaining members of the SortedList<TKey, TVal> class are described in Table 19-16. Table 19-16. Other SortedList<TKey, TVal> Members
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Returns true if the list contains the specified key Returns true if the list contains the specified value Removes unused space from the underlying array (see List<T> for an example that uses this method) Returns the number of keys contained in the list Returns the capacity of the array used to store the data
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A dictionary stores key/value pairs, just like we saw when using SortedList<TKey, TVal> in the previous section. If you have used a hash table in another programming language, then you ll already understand the model used by a dictionary. The types TKey and TVal can differ, such that you can have int values and string keys.
CHAPTER 19 COLLECTIONS
The IDictionary<TKey, TVal> Interface
The IDictionary<TKey, TVal> interface defines the behavior for a dictionary that uses keys of type TKey to store values of type TVal. Much like the IList<T> interface, IDictionary<TKey, TVal> allows you to work with a dictionary without worrying about what implementation you are using. The members of the interfaces are described in Table 19-17. Table 19-17. The Members of the IDictionary<TKey, TVal> Interface
Member
Add(TKey, TVal) ContainsKey(TKey) Remove(TKey) TryGetValue(TKey, out TVal)
Description
Adds a new key and value to the dictionary. Returns true if the dictionary contains a specified key. Removes a key (and its associated value) from the dictionary. Returns true and sets the out TVal to the value associated with a given key or returns false and sets the out TVal to the default value for the TVal type if there is no match. See the SortedList<TKey, TVal> section of this chapter for an example of using this method. An indexer that gets or sets the value associated with a specified key. Returns an ICollection<TKey> containing all the keys. Returns an ICollection<TVal> containing all the values.
Item Keys Values
Listing 19-21 demonstrates using some of the member of the IDictionary<TKey, TVal> interface. The implementation in this example is the Dictionary<TKey, TVal> class, which we explore fully later in the chapter. In this example, I create a dictionary and use the members of the interface to add data, enumerate the contents of the dictionary in different ways, modify the data, and check that a given key exists. Listing 19-21. Using the IDictionary<TKey, TVal> Interface using System; using System.Collections.Generic; namespace Listing 21 { class Listing 21 { static void Main(string[] args) { // create the IDictionary instance IDictionary<string, string> dict = new Dictionary<string, string>(); // add some data to the dictionary dict.Add("apple", "red");
CHAPTER 19 COLLECTIONS
dict.Add("cherry", "red"); dict.Add("banana", "yellow"); // use the indexer dict["apple"] = "green"; // enumerate the contents of the dictionary Console.WriteLine("Enumerating dictionary items"); foreach (KeyValuePair<string, string> kvp in dict) { Console.WriteLine("Dictionary Item. Key: {0}, Value: {1}", kvp.Key, kvp.Value); } // enumerate just the keys Console.WriteLine("\nEnumerating dictionary keys"); foreach (string key in dict.Keys) { Console.WriteLine("Dictionary Key: {0}", key); } // enumerate just the values Console.WriteLine("\nEnumerating dictionary values"); foreach (string value in dict.Values) { Console.WriteLine("Dictionary Value: {0}", value); } // check to see if a key exists bool keyexists = dict.ContainsKey("cherry"); Console.WriteLine("\nIDictionary contains key 'cherry': {0}", keyexists); // wait for input before exiting Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); Console.ReadLine(); } } } Compiling and running the code in Listing 19-21 gives the following output: Enumerating dictionary items Dictionary Item. Key: apple, Value: green Dictionary Item. Key: cherry, Value: red Dictionary Item. Key: banana, Value: yellow Enumerating dictionary keys Dictionary Key: apple Dictionary Key: cherry Dictionary Key: banana Enumerating dictionary values Dictionary Value: green Dictionary Value: red
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