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CHAPTER 38 TESTING AND DEBUGGING
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classes by changing the properties for your project. If you right-click your project in the Solution Explorer window and select the Build tab on the settings pane, you will see the Define DEBUG constant and Define TRACE constant check boxes, as shown in Figure 38-4.
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Figure 38-4. Enabling and disabling the DEBUG and TRACE constants You can see from Figure 38-4 that for the Release build, the DEBUG constant is not selected and the TRACE constant is selected. For a Debug build, both are selected, which is why calls to the Debug class don t work in release builds. You can use the project properties to override these defaults by using the check boxes.
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Using Static Code Analysis
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The paid-for editions of Visual Studio include a static code analyzer, which checks the statements in your code against a set of predefined rules and reports any statement that contravenes any of the rules.
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Note This feature is not available with Visual Studio 2010 Express.
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Static code analysis can be a force for good or a force for evil. It is easy to become obsessed with correcting all the errors reported by the analyzer, even when it doesn t pay dividends to do so. I love static code analysis and believe they can really improve the quality of code, but I have lost countless hours of my life settling arguments between developers fighting over the output. Pragmatism is the key with this feature. Only make changes that are sensible, apply only those rules that you care about, and don t become obsessed.
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Selecting the Code Analysis Rules
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To select the rules used to inspect your code, right-click your project in the Solution Explorer window, and select Properties from the pop-up menu. Click the Code Analysis tab on the left side of the window, and you will see the options for static code analysis, shown in Figure 38-5.
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CHAPTER 38 TESTING AND DEBUGGING
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Figure 38-5. Code analysis settings You can have different code analysis settings for different build settings: Debug, Release, and so on. For each build setting, you can decide whether code analysis should be performed automatically when you build your project and which rules should be used. I have selected Microsoft All Rules from the drop-down list. As the name suggests, this is the set of all rules that Microsoft provides with Visual Studio. Being able to perform code analysis when your project is built can be especially useful if you have a team build environment, which will reject source changes unless they conform to a set of analysis rules. You can inspect the rules by clicking the Open button; we ll return to that in a later section.
Performing Static Analysis
Once you have selected the rule set you want to apply, you can perform code analysis by selecting the Run Code Analysis item from the Build menu. This will recompile your project and analyze your code. Listing 38-7 shows the code that we ll analyze in this section. Listing 38-7. The Code That Will Be Analyzed class Calculator { public int CalculateSum(int x, int y) { return x + y; } public int CalculateProduct(int x, int y) { return x * y; } public int CalculateSubtraction(int x, int y) { return x - y;
CHAPTER 38 TESTING AND DEBUGGING
} public int CalculateDivision(int x, int y) { return x / y; } } When you run code analysis, the results are shown in the Error List window. This will usually pop up when you build your project, but you can also select it from the View menu. Figure 38-6 shows part of the output from applying the Microsoft All Rules set to Listing 38-7.
Figure 38-6. The results of code analysis Not all the detail from the code analysis output will fit into a printed page, but if you run the analysis yourself, you will see that the output includes details of where each rule violation has been found and in which file. You can see that there is a lot of repetition in the errors shown in Figure 38-6. This is pretty common for some kinds of rule because programmers, me included, tend to write groups of methods together, cookie-cutter style, and so one rule violation tends to be repeated several times. For example, the first example of rule CA1822 tells me that the CalculateDivision method in the Calculator class doesn t refer to any instance variables and that I should make the method static to improve performance. CA1822 is part of the Microsoft.Performance group of rules that are focused on improving performance. The next three violations are the same rule, reported for the CalculateProduct, CalculateSubtraction, and CalculateSum methods.
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