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Defining the Method Name
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The first thing to decide when you are creating a new method is what to call it. You should pick a name that makes it clear what the method does. Bear in mind that other developers may not know what cryptic names mean when they come to use your class. In general, method names should be verbs or phrases that relate to verbs, for example Add, CopyTo, and Convert. The convention for C# methods is to use Pascal case, meaning that one or more words are combined together and each, including the first, is capitalized; you can see this convention in the name of the example method, CalculateProduct. Each method in a class must have a unique signature, which is the combination of the method name and the types and order of the parameters. You can have several methods that have the same name if the parameters are different. This is called overloading a method and is discussed in the Overloading Methods section later in this chapter.
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Defining the Result Type
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Methods perform a calculation or action, and this often generates a result. The result for the method in Listing 9-1 is the product of two integers, which is itself an integer. When defining a method, you must specify the result type; in this case, it is int. A method is said to return the type of the result, so, for example, we would say that the method in Listing 9-1 returns an int. You can return any type from a method, including custom types you have created yourself. Listing 9-2 contains a method that returns a custom type. Listing 9-2. Returning a Custom Type class ProductResult { public int FirstParam { get; set; } public int SecondParam { get; set; } public int Result { get; set; } } class MyClass { public ProductResult CalculateProduct(int num1, int num2) { // compute the product return new ProductResult() { FirstParam = num1, SecondParam = num2, Result = num1 * num2 }; } } Listing 9-2 contains a custom type named ProductResult, which represents the result of integer multiplication. It contains three properties one for each of the two numbers that were multiplied and one for the result of the multiplication. You can find out more about properties, including the
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CHAPTER 9 METHODS
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automatically implemented kind used here in 8. The CalculateProduct method in MyClass returns an instance of ProductResult. I have highlighted the return type for the method in bold.
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Note Methods that return a result must use the return keyword; see the Defining the Method Body section for more information.
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You don t have to return a result from your method. You can use the void keyword in place of a return type to indicate that your method doesn t return a result. Listing 9-3 contains an example of a method that doesn t return a value. Listing 9-3. Using the void Keyword class MyClass { public void CalculateProduct(int num1, int num2) { // compute the product and print the result System.Console.WriteLine("Product: {0}", num1 * num2); } } The method in Listing 9-3 computes the product of two integers and then uses the Console class to write out the result. The method doesn t return a result, so the void keyword has been used. You don t need to use the return keyword if your method doesn t return a result, but doing so allows us to terminate the execution of a method early.
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Defining the Parameters
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The parameters, also known as the arguments, allow the caller of your method to supply objects or values for processing by your method. In the case of the method in Listing 9-1, the parameters are the two int values that are to be multiplied together. Each parameter is given a name unique to that method. For the example, I used num1 and num2. You can use any name for your parameters, but the convention is to use descriptive names to make using your method simpler. C# parameters names use camel case, where the first letter of the name is lowercase, but the first letters of any subsequent words are uppercase, for example, firstNumber. Parameters are a common cause of confusion for programmers new to C#. There are a lot of different options and features available; see the Understanding Parameters section later in this chapter for more information. Methods are not required to have parameters. You can omit them entirely if your method doesn t need to receive objects to process. Listing 9-4 contains a method that doesn t have any parameters. Listing 9-4. A Method Without Parameters class MyClass { public void PrintMessage() { // print a message
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