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Using Local Variables
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You can create variables inside of methods and assign values or references to them. These variables are limited in scope to the method body, although you can pass them as parameters to other methods. Listing 9-20 contains a simple example.
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Listing 9-20. Defining a Local Variable class Calculator { public int PerformCalculation(int x, int y) { // create a local variable int product = x * y; // return the local variable return product; } } The local variable in Listing 9-20 is shown in bold. You can see that defining a local variable is similar to defining a field, which we covered in 7, and in fact, when you define a field or local variable, you are creating a new storage location to which you assign a value or a reference. You can define a local variable and assign a value, as I did in Listing 9-20. Or you can define the variable in one statement and assign a value in another, like this: int product; product = x * y; You can assign new values to a variable (which is why they are called variables; the value or reference they represent can change), like this: int product; product = x * y; product = 100; Local variables can be used of any type, such as the value types I have demonstrated so far, or reference types, such as string, and you can have many local variables in a single method: public int PerformCalculation(int x, int y) { // create a local variable int product = x * y; // create another local variable string str = "Hello World"; // return the local variable return product; } You can assign parameters to local variables and use the new keyword to create new objects and assign a reference to a local variable: class Calculator {
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public int PerformCalculation(int x, int y) { // create a local variable int product = x * y; // create a local variable of the current type Calculator calc = new Calculator(); // create a local variable and assign the // value of one of the parameters int localVar = x; // return the local variable return product; } } And, of course, you can create a local variable and assign it the value of another local variable or a field or property from the enclosing object: class Calculator { private int myField = 20; public int PerformCalculation(int x, int y) { // create a local variable int product = x * y; // create a new variable and assign it // the value of the product variable int localVar = product; // assign the value of the field to the variable localVar = myField; // return the local variable return product; } } The list of things that you can do with a local variable just goes on and on. Once you have defined a local variable, you can assign it any value or reference of the correct type, either by using a literal (such as the numeric literals discussed in 5), by using the result of any C# operator, or by using the result of any C# statement, such as a call to other methods.
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The naming convention for local variables is camel case, meaning the first letter is lowercase, multiple words are concatenated together, and the first letter of each subsequent word is uppercase, for example, myVariable.
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You can t use a name that is already assigned to a parameter, but you can use a name that is already assigned to a field in the enclosing object. Listing 9-21 contains an example. Listing 9-21. Hiding a Field with a Local Variable class Calculator { private int divisor = 20; public int PerformCalculation(int x, int y) { // create a local variable with the same name // as used for the class field int divisor = 100; // perform a calculation and return the result return x * y / divisor; } } In Listing 9-21, the local variable divisor has the same name as a field. The variable is said to be hiding the field. When the last statement in the method refers to divisor, the value that will be used is the one from the local variable, not the field. If you want to access the field, you use the this keyword, as follows:
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return x * y / this.divisor;
The keyword this refers to the current object instance. It means the instance of the object that contains this method. For example, to call a method that has a parameter of the type that contains the method you are writing, you can use this as the parameter value, like this: class Calculator { public int PerformCalculation(int x, int y) { // create a local variable with the same name // as used for the class field int divisor = 100; ManageCalculator(this); // perform a calculation and return the result return x * y / divisor; } public void ManageCalculator(Calculator calc) { // ... method body } } The .NET runtime interprets the this keyword to mean the object on which the current method has been called. The ManageCalculator method takes a Calculator object as a parameter. The PerformCalculation method calls the ManageCalculator method, using this to refer to the current instance of Calculator.
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