GETTING THE MOST OUT OF VE RTICES in Word

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CHAPTER 5 GETTING THE MOST OUT OF VE RTICES
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float2 deviations = 0; deviations += derivatives.x*xWaveDir0; deviations += derivatives.y*xWaveDir1; deviations += derivatives.z*xWaveDir2; deviations += derivatives.w*xWaveDir3; float3 Normal = float3(-deviations.x, 1, -deviations.y); Vertices with almost 0 deviation will obtain (0,1,0) as normal, while vertices on slopes of high, short waves will have a normal that is pointing mostly into the direction of this wave.
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Vertex Shader: Tangent-to-World Matrix Creation
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When you use the normal generated in the previous section to add lighting to your ocean, it will be shaded just nicely. However, your waves will be looking a bit dull, because they don t have the fine detail of real water. To add this fine detail, you ll bump map the normal vector in each pixel of your ocean water. Before you can do any bump mapping in your pixel shader, you need to pass it the correct Tangent-to-World matrix. As explained in recipe 5-16, the rows of this matrix are the normal, binormal, and tangent vectors. Now that you already know the normal vector, go on and define the tangent and binormal vectors as well: float3 Binormal = float3(1, deviations.x, 0); float3 Tangent = float3(0, deviations.y, 1); The three vectors should be perpendicular to each other. Because you have deviated the normal from the (0,1,0) vector, you should also deviate the binormal from the (1,0,0) vector and the tangent from the (0,0,1) vector, by pulling them up or down. Once you know the three base vectors of your tangent space, it s easy to define the Tangent-to-World matrix, as explained in recipe 5-16: float3x3 tangentToObject; tangentToObject[0] = normalize(Binormal); tangentToObject[1] = normalize(Tangent); tangentToObject[2] = normalize(Normal); float3x3 tangentToWorld = mul(tangentToObject, xWorld); Output.TTW = tangentToWorld; Output.TexCoord = inTexCoord+xTime/50.0f*float2(-1,0); return Output; You pass the Tangent-to-World matrix to the pixel shader, as well as the texture coordinate that is required to sample at the right position from the bump map.
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CHAPTER 5 GETTING THE MOST OUT OF VERTICES
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Pixel Shader: Bump Mapping
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In each pixel, you will deviate the normal to add the illusion of small ripples on the water. If you used one bump map for your whole ocean, you would easily see the pattern of your bump map in the final result. Therefore, in each pixel you will sample the bump map at three different coordinates and average the result. Remember that a color is always defined within the [0,1] region, so you subtract 0.5 from each color to bring them to the [ 0.5,0.5] region. Bringing them to the [ 1,1] region (the range of XYZ coordinates for a normal) will be done in the next step. float3 bumpColor1 = tex2D(BumpMapSampler, xTexStretch*PSIn.TexCoord)-0.5f; float3 bumpColor2 = tex2D(BumpMapSampler, xTexStretch*1.8*PSIn.TexCoord.yx)-0.5f; float3 bumpColor3 = tex2D(BumpMapSampler, xTexStretch*3.1*PSIn.TexCoord)-0.5f; float3 normalT = bumpColor1 + bumpColor2 + bumpColor3; The three texture coordinates are different, because they are multiplied by a different factor. The XY coordinates of the second texture coordinate have even been changed. In the end, all three deviations are summed together. This direction should be normalized, but before doing so, you have the opportunity to scale the bump mapping effect. In a bump map, the blue color component corresponds to the default normal direction, while the red and green components indicate the amount of deviation into the binormal or tangent direction. So if you increase/decrease the red and blue colors, you increase/decrease the deviation and thus the bump-mapping effect! normalT.rg *= xBumpStrength; normalT = normalize(normalT); float3 normalW = mul(normalT, PSIn.TTW); The obtained direction is normalized and transformed into world space. You end up with the normal defined in world space, allowing you to compare it to other directions defined in world space.
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Pixel Shader: Reflections
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Now that you know the normal vector, defined in world coordinates, for each pixel, you could add correct lighting to your water. However, to make things a bit more realistic, you re going to add reflection to the water first. Because the reflective color will be sampled from the skybox, you ll need a direction to sample the skybox from (see recipe 2-8). You can find this direction by mirroring the eye vector, which is the vector coming from the camera going toward the pixel, over the normal vector, as shown in Figure 5-34.
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