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CHAPTER 2 SE TTIN G UP DIFFE RENT CA MERA MODE S IN YOUR 3 D WORLD
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Figure 2-17. Projective camera frustum (left) and orthogonal camera frustum (right) To generate an orthographic depth map of an object, you will define an orthogonal View matrix and define the size of the eye and the position of the near and far clipping planes in such a way that the object fits exactly in between.
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Note Because the objects in the scene are no longer scaled according to their distances to the camera,
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bringing the camera closer to the scene will not cause the image to change.
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Tip You can also use an orthogonal View matrix to render a 3D model in a 2D platform game.
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In this case, a model will be loaded from a file, of which you will create a depth map. You will need one variable to store the model and another one to store the effect, which will render a black-and-white image containing the depth of each pixel. To store this resulting image into a file or texture variable, you will use a RenderTarget2D variable, as explained in recipe 3-8. Model myModel; Matrix[] modelTransforms; Effect effect; RenderTarget2D targetRenderedTo; Initialize the Effect and RenderTarget in the LoadContent method. You ll create the depthmap.fx effect file at the end of this recipe. effect = content.Load<Effect>("depthmap"); PresentationParameters pp = device.PresentationParameters; targetRenderedTo = new RenderTarget2D(device, pp.BackBufferWidth, pp.BackBufferHeight, 1, device.DisplayMode.Format);
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To be able to define the orthogonal volume in such a way that the model fits snuggly inside, you have to find the BoundingSphere of the model, which is the smallest sphere that completely contains the model. You can find an explanation of this method in recipe 4-5 in 4. myModel = XNAUtils.LoadModelWithBoundingSphere(ref modelTransforms, "tiny", content); Also, because you ll be rendering the Model using a custom technique, you need to store a copy of your custom technique inside each part of the mesh, as explained in recipe 4-7: foreach (ModelMesh mesh in myModel.Meshes) foreach (ModelMeshPart meshpart in mesh.MeshParts) meshpart.Effect = effect.Clone(device);
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Creating the Orthogonal View Matrix
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Next, you will need a method that creates the orthogonal View matrix and renders the model. This will be done in the RenderModel method. As always, to render the 3D model, you need World, View, and Projection matrices. Using a World matrix can be useful in cases when the origin of the Model does not exactly match the center of the BoundingSphere. This is usually the case, for example, when the model is asymmetric. Because you want the depth map to have the real center of the Model in its center, you will translate the model by positioning the center of the BoundingSphere in the (0,0,0) 3D origin point. Here is the code that defines your View matrix: private void RenderModel() { BoundingSphere modelSphere = (BoundingSphere)myModel.Tag; Vector3 camPosition = new Vector3(0,0,-modelSphere.Radius-10); Matrix viewMatrix = Matrix.CreateLookAt(camPosition, new Vector3(0,0,0), new Vector3(0,1,0)); } Because you will later set the World matrix so the center of the Model will be in the (0,0,0) 3D origin, this 3D origin will be the target of your camera. You will position the camera in front of the model, thus on the negative z-axis. Because in orthographic projection distance does not have an impact on how big the model is presented on the screen, it does not matter exactly where you position the camera on the negative z-axis, as long as you make sure the camera is not inside the model! Since the maximum size of the model from its center is contained in the modelSphere.Radius property, you position the camera at the (0,0,-modelSphere.Radius-10) position. Because you don t want your camera to add a rotation to your screen, you take the (0,1,0) World Up vector as the Up vector for your camera. Next is the definition of your projection matrix, which you will create by using the Matrix. CreateOrthographic method. The first two arguments are the width and the height of the viewing frustum, which corresponds to the distance between the parallel lines in the right side of Figure 2-17. Because you want the volume to exactly fit around the BoundingSphere of your model, you specify two times its radius (since the radius equals half the width of the sphere).
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