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Maintaining File Integrity with Tripwire
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Once you have hardened and secured your files and file systems, you need to ensure they stay that way. One of the biggest threats to security hardening is entropy over time changes are introduced to the environment that could expose you to risk of attack. The security and integrity
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CHAPTER 4 s SECURING FILES AND FILE SYSTEMS
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of your files is no different. As things change on your systems, so can the permissions and content of your files and objects. Additionally, one of the key indicators of an attack or penetration of your system is unexpected changes in permissions, attributes, and the contents of files and objects. To mitigate the risk of these sorts of changes and to detect any malicious changes to your files and objects, several checksum and integrity scanners exist. These scanners take a baseline of your system and then run regular, usually scheduled, scans of your system and compare the results against the baseline. I will cover the most well-known scanner, Tripwire. Tripwire works on a policy-compliance model. You need to configure a policy covering all the objects you want to monitor and the changes to these objects in which you are interested. Taking this policy, Tripwire then initializes and generates a baseline database of all the file and objects covered by this policy. You next schedule a regular scan of the system, and if Tripwire detects a variation from the baseline, then it will be reported. Tripwire is available in a number of different forms and variations. Many distributions have created their own branches of Tripwire. This is in addition to the open-source version available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/tripwire/ and the commercial version available at the Tripwire site, http://www.tripwire.com. These branched versions of Tripwire tend to have subtle differences. Usually these differences are aimed at addressing the idiosyncrasies of a particular distribution; for example, the Tripwire version available for Red Hat moves and renames some commands to bring Tripwire in line with Red Hat s conventions. I recommend you look at the package available for your distribution first. This package is likely to be easier to configure for your system than other versions. Tripwire is available via Apt for Debian, as an RPM for Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Mandrake on those distributions media, and for Red Hat Fedora Core.11 It is also available from SourceForge as a source tarball. The source tarball is often difficult to compile. I recommend installing Tripwire via an RPM; the following line installs the Fedora RPM. puppy# rpm -Uvh tripwire-2.3.1-20.fdr.1.2.i386.rpm
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s So, when do you install and initialize Tripwire Well, I recommend you install and initialize Tripwire Tip after you have installed your operating system and applications and have applied any updates or patches but before you have connected your system to a production network. This ensures Tripwire can be configured with all the required files and binaries being monitored and reduces the risk that an attacker could penetrate your system before you enable Tripwire.
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Configuring Tripwire
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In this section, you will see the base Tripwire configuration, and then I will show you how to initialize and run Tripwire. As you are going to configure Tripwire using the Red Hat Fedora RPM, some of the configuration options, especially their naming conventions, may differ from other versions of Tripwire. This is especially true of the source tarball version where many configuration options differ. I will try to address this where I can.
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11. Via http://download.fedora.us/
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CHAPTER 4 s SECURING FILES AND FILE SYSTEMS
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After installing Tripwire, the configuration for the tool will be installed into the /etc/tripwire directory in the form of two files: twcfg.txt and twpol.txt. The twcfg.txt file contains the default configuration for Tripwire, including the location of the Tripwire binaries and policies. The twpol.txt file contains the Tripwire policy that tells Tripwire what to monitor. I will talk about it in the Explaining Tripwire Policy section. Listing 4-33 shows a sample of the twcfg.txt file. Listing 4-33. Tripwire twcfg.txt ROOT POLFILE DBFILE REPORTFILE SITEKEYFILE =/usr/sbin =/etc/tripwire/tw.pol =/var/lib/tripwire/$(HOSTNAME).twd =/var/lib/tripwire/report/$(HOSTNAME)-$(DATE).twr =/etc/tripwire/site.key
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The file consists of directives and answers (for example, ROOT=/usr/sbin), which indicates where the Tripwire binaries are located. Most of the directives in twcfg.txt are self-explanatory. Table 4-8 describes some of the other directives and their functions. Table 4-8. Tripwire twcfg.txt Directives
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