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The global Tripwire variables define the location of Tripwire-specific objects and directories and the hostname of the system on which Tripwire is running. These variables are contained in a special section of the policy file called a directive. This directive is entitled @@section GLOBAL and is located toward the start of the policy file. Listing 4-34 shows a sample of the global variables section of the default twpol.txt file created when I installed Tripwire.
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CHAPTER 4 s SECURING FILES AND FILE SYSTEMS
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Listing 4-34. Tripwire Global Variables @@section GLOBAL TWROOT=/usr/sbin; TWBIN=/usr/sbin; TWPOL="/etc/tripwire"; TWDB="/var/lib/tripwire"; TWSKEY="/etc/tripwire"; TWLKEY="/etc/tripwire"; TWREPORT="/var/lib/tripwire/report"; HOSTNAME=puppy.yourdomain.com; Each variable is terminated by a semicolon. If the semicolon is missing, then the policy file will not parse correctly, so loading the policy into Tripwire (as I will demonstrate in the Initializing and Running Tripwire section) will fail. Most of the variables in Listing 4-34 are self-explanatory and specify the directories that Tripwire will use. The last variable is HOSTNAME. You need to set HOSTNAME to your system s fully qualified domain name (FQDN) to ensure Tripwire functions correctly. In this case, this is puppy.yourdomain.com.
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s Note In the sample twpol.txt file installed by the RPM, you also have the FS directive section, which
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contains some predefined property summaries and other variables used by the example policy. I discuss these property summaries and variables briefly in the Tripwire Rules section.
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A Tripwire rule is defined as a file or directory name and a property mask separated by the symbols ->. Additionally, it can have some optional rule attributes. In Listing 4-35 you can see the structure of a Tripwire rule. Listing 4-35. Tripwire Rule Structure filename -> property mask (rule attribute = value); Let s look at each part of the Tripwire rule. The first portion of the rule is the file or object you want to monitor. This could be a single file or an entire directory. If you specify a directory, then Tripwire will monitor the properties of that directory and the entire contents of that directory. You can have only one rule per object or file. If an object has more than one rule, Tripwire will fail with an error message and not conduct any scanning. The file or object is then separated from the property mask by a space or tab and the -> symbols, followed by another space or tab. The property mask tells Tripwire exactly what change about the file or object you want to monitor. For example, you could monitor for a change to the user who owns the file, the size of the file, or the file s permissions. Each property is indicated by a letter prefixed with either a plus (+) sign or a minus (-) sign. For example, the following line monitors the ownership of the /etc/passwd file: /etc/passwd -> +u;
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CHAPTER 4 s SECURING FILES AND FILE SYSTEMS
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The u is the Tripwire property for object ownership, and the plus (+) sign indicates you want to monitor this property. You can add further properties to be monitored by adding property letters to your Tripwire rule. On the next line you add the property, s, which indicates file size: /etc/passwd -> +su; Now Tripwire will monitor for any changes to the /etc/passwd file s ownership and its size.
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s Note You must terminate all rules with a semicolon (;).
Table 4-9 lists all the properties you can monitor for in Tripwire. Table 4-9. Tripwire Property Masks
Property
a b c d g i l m n p r s t u C H M S
Description
Access time stamp. Number of blocks. Inode time stamp. ID of the device on which the inode resides. Owning group. Inode number. File increases in size. Modification time stamp. Number of links to the object. Permissions. ID of the device pointed to by inode. Valid only for device type objects. File size. File type. Object owner. CRC-32 hash value. Haval hash value. MD5 hash value. SHA hash value.
These properties are generally fairly self-explanatory file system attributes. The only property that needs further explanation is l. The l property is designed for files that will only grow. Tripwire thus monitors to see if the file shrinks in size but ignores the file if it grows in size. The minus (-) sign prefixing a property indicates that you do not want to monitor for that property. In the next line I am monitoring the /etc/passwd file for its ownership and size, but I have explicitly told Tripwire that I do not care about its last modification time stamp. /etc/passwd -> +su-m;
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