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After removing scripts from your /etc/init.d directory, I recommend you further secure the contents of this directory. Enter the following: kitten# chown root:root /etc/init.d/* kitten# chmod -R 700 /etc/init.d/*
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s If you want, you can also download and install chkconfig on a Debian system. You can find a source Tip
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The inittab File
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Your init scripts are not the only place where services are started. You should also review the contents of the inittab file in the /etc directory. Though its use to start services is rarer these days, some items still end up in this file. Red Hat systems, for example, place several services in this file, including a trap for the Control+Alt+Delete key combination. Additionally, tty terminals are often started in this file. Listing 1-10 shows some service lines in the inittab file. Listing 1-10. inittab Service sysacc:235:acct:/usr/sbin/acct -q -d ~~:S:wait:/sbin/sulogin ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now The first line shows starting a service called sysacc. The line is broken down into the name of the service being started, the run levels the service will start at, a label for the service, and the command and any options to run separated by colons. servicename:runlevels:label:command -option -option You should review all commands being started in this file and determine if they are all needed. If you want to remove a service, simply comment out or delete that line.
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s For consistency I recommend not starting services in inittab but using init scripts. Tip
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The second line in Listing 1-10 shows a trap I have added specifically for Red Hat systems. Red Hat allows booting into single-user mode by typing linux single on the LILO command line or the Grub boot-editing menus. This line forces the execution of the command /sbin/sulogin if single-user mode is started (run level S). The /sbin/sulogin requires the root password be to be entered before single-user mode will be started. See the sulogin man page for more information. The third line in Listing 1-10 shows a trap for the Control+Alt+Delete key combination commonly used to reboot systems.
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s Linux pays attention only to the Control+Alt+Delete key combination when used from the console Tip
or virtual consoles. For users who are logged into the system via other means for example, a terminal session pressing these keys will do nothing.
By default most Linux kernels trap this key combination when pressed and pass it to the init system for processing. This allows you to specify the action taken when the Control+Alt+Delete key combination is pressed. The default action is usually to run the shutdown command. I recommend securing this a bit further by adding the -a option to the trap in Listing 1-10. ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -a -t3 -r now The -a option enables the use of the shutdown.allowed file. Create a file called shutdown.allowed in the /etc directory. Add the users you want to be authorized to use the shutdown command to the file, one username per line. You can also have comments and empty lines in this file. Listing 1-11 shows what is inside the sample shutdown.allowed file. Listing 1-11. Sample shutdown.allowed File root bob sarah If someone other than these users tries to issue a Control+Alt+Delete from the console, they will get an error message. shutdown: no authorized users logged in On some systems you may not want anybody to be able to use Control+Alt+Delete. To do this, change the trap line to the following: ca::ctrlaltdel: Your /etc/inittab file also contains the definitions for the virtual terminals available to you on the console using the Alt+number key combination. You can define them using the following lines in inittab: 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1 2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2 Generally most distributions define six or so virtual terminals. You can reduce the number of virtual terminals started by commenting out some of the ttys in the /etc/inittab file. After making any changes to the inittab file, you need to tell the init process to review the file. Use the following command: puppy# telinit q Then you need to ensure the inittab file has the correct ownerships and permissions to ensure only those authorized can work with the file. puppy# chown root:root /etc/inittab
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