how to generate barcode in visual basic 2010 Default Users in Font

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Table 1-6. Default Users
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User
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adm backup bin daemon desktop ftp games gdm gnats gopher halt identd irc list lp lpd mail mailnull
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Purpose
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Owns diagnostic and accounting tools Used by packing for backing up critical files Owns executables for user commands Owns and runs system processes KDE user Default FTP user Games user GDM user GNATS (bug tracking) user Gopher user /sbin/halt user User for identd daemon Internet relay chat (IRC) user Mailman user Printing user Printing user Default user for Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) Sendmail user
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Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes (if not using mailman) Yes (if no printing) Yes (if no printing) Maybe Yes (if no Sendmail)
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CHAPTER 1 s HARDENING THE BASICS
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Table 1-6.
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man news nfsnobody nobody nscd ntp operator postgres proxy root rpc rpcuser rpm shutdown sshd sync sys telnetd uucp vcsa www-data xfs
Purpose
Man-db user Default news user NFS User Default user for Apache or NFS Name Service Cache Daemon user Network Time Protocol user Ops user Postgres default user Default proxy user Root user RPC user Default RPC user RPM user Shutdown user Privilege split sshd user Sync user Default mounting user Telnetd default user Default uucp user Virtual console memory Owns www data X Font Server
Remove
No Yes Yes Maybe Yes (if not using nscd) No Yes Yes (if no Postgres) Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes (if not Web server) Yes
Table 1-6 contains a combined list of the typical users created when a fresh Red Hat or Debian system is installed; thus, not all users in the table may be present on your system, as some are specific to one distribution or the other. This is also dependent on the packages you have installed on your system, so others may be present on your installation. I labeled two users as Maybe, meaning that they are optionally removable from your system. These were the mail and nobody users. Several packages utilize these users to run processes after the package has dropped privileges. For example, some e-mail servers, such as Sendmail, use the mail user for this purpose, and it is common for Apache to use the nobody user. You should check to see if any processes or packages are utilizing these users before you delete them. You can do this by using the ps command. puppy# ps -U mail -u mail PID TTY TIME CMD 809 00:00:03 fetchmail Replace mail with the username of each user you want to check.
CHAPTER 1 s HARDENING THE BASICS
To remove a user from your system, you can use the userdel command. If you use the userdel command in conjunction with the -r option, you will also remove users home directories, any files in their home directories, and their mail spools. Be sure to check you are removing material that should be deleted. Additional files or directories belonging to that user outside their home directory will not be removed, and you will need to optionally find these files and directories and remove them if required. These are the groups that can generally be removed: lp news uucp proxy postgres www-data backup operator list irc src gnats staff games users gdm telnetd gopher ftp nscd rpc rpcuser nfsnobody xfs desktop To remove a group from the system, you can use the groupdel command. This command has no options. puppy# groupdel sales
CHAPTER 1 s HARDENING THE BASICS
Passwords
As part of the user and group creation process, you need to ensure your users choose suitable and secure passwords for their accounts and that those passwords are managed and changed on a regular basis. I mentioned earlier in this chapter shadow passwords and using the /etc/shadow file. Additionally, most distributions also come with support for MD5 passwords. Without MD5 your passwords are encrypted via DES (the Data Encryption Standard), which is significantly more vulnerable to cracking attempts than MD5 passwords. You should enable both shadow passwording and MD5 passwords as part of your install process. Your users ability to choose their own passwords is one of the most frustrating and dangerous parts of user administration. Almost all your users have one objective when choosing a password: choosing one that is easy for them to remember. Security is simply not a consideration. Changing their password on a regular basis for them is an inconvenience and a chore. But it is an essential activity for the ongoing security of your system. A lot of people in the security world believe this sort of attitude is able to be changed with education about the risks of poor password security. I believe this is only partially true. To an extent no matter how often most of your users are told to treat their password like the personal identification number (PIN) to their cash card, they simply do not attach the same importance to it as they would something valuable to them personally. This is not to say you should not attempt to educate them, but do not count on it changing their attitudes. I recommend taking a consultative but ultimately dictatorial approach to determining the characteristics of your password variables and regime. Explain the security requirements of your environment to your end users, but do not compromise that security by making exceptions to your overall password rules. I recommend you set your password rules, taking into consideration the following points: Do not allow passwords with dictionary words, such as dog, cat, or elephant. The same applies for non-English-language words. Do not allow passwords with only letters or numbers, such as 12345678 or abcdefghi. Ensure users do not use personal information such as dates of birth, pet names, names of family members, phone numbers, or post and zip codes. Set a minimum password length of ten. Longer is better. Force users to mix case; in other words, use both uppercase and lowercase letters in the password. Force users to mix letters, numbers, and punctuation in the password. Ensure your users change their passwords regularly; and if the password expires without being changed, then set a time limit after which that user account should be disabled. Ensure the new password is not the same as a number of previous passwords. You can control the characteristics of your users passwords in Linux via PAM. I talk about PAM in more detail in the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) section later in this chapter, but I will cover the PAM modules specifically designed to handle the passwd application here. The PAM modules are defined in individual files located in the /etc/pam.d directory. The file you want to look at in this directory is passwd and contains all the relevant PAM modules
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