how to generate barcode in visual basic 2010 s HARDENING THE BASICS in Font

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CHAPTER 1 s HARDENING THE BASICS
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Now that you have imported the public key, you can use the same gpg command to validate the file you have downloaded. To do this, you use the gpg option --verify and provide the name of the signature you have downloaded; it is gnupg-1-2.4.tar.bz2.sig, as you can see in Listing 1-46. Listing 1-46. Verifying a File Using gpg puppy# gpg --verify gnupg-1.2.4.tar.bz2.sig gpg: Signature made Wed 24 Dec 2003 07:24:58 EST using DSA key ID 57548DCD gpg: Good signature from "Werner Koch (gnupg sig) <dd9jn@gnu.org>" gpg: checking the trustdb gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Fingerprint: 6BD9 050F D8FC 941B 4341 2DCC 68B7 AB89 5754 8DCD The gpg command will take the contents of this digital signature and look for the contents of a file of the same name with the suffix of .sig removed from the filename. Thus, in this example, the gpg command will be looking for a file called gnupg-1.2.4.tar.bz2. If the filename is different from the signature file; you can specify the file you want to verify after the signature file on the command line. puppy# gpg --verify gnupg-1.2.4.tar.bz2.sig gnupg.tar.gz As you can see from Listing 1-46, the file was signed with the author s private key and the signature is valid. The warning message that appears tells you that this validation is not 100 percent complete, though, because the trust ends with the key used to sign the signature. This means the gpg has no way of confirming that the author is the actual owner of the key used to sign the signature. I will talk about this concept of trusted relationship further in 3. For the purposes of verifying the integrity of the package you have downloaded, I suggest this level of validation is suitable for most instances.
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s Though I do not show the process every time you download a file or package during the chapters of Tip this book, I strongly urge you to verify all files you download using whatever means are available to you. Be extremely wary of files that offer no means of verifying their integrity.
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Most recent releases of the RPM package (including those with recent versions of Red Hat and Mandrake) handle digital signature checking internally and transparently to you with some initial setup. The RPM file itself holds the digital signature and a variety of checksums. You then verify those checksums and digital signatures using the rpm command. To do this, you need to import the RPM provider or vendor s public key into your RPM public keyring. Your RPM public keyring is different from your GPG public keyring. If you have imported a public key into your GPG keyring, this does not mean you can use that public key with RPM. For example, Red Hat provides its public key in a variety of locations for you to add to your
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CHAPTER 1 s HARDENING THE BASICS
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RPM public keyring. You can find it at the Red Hat site at http://www.redhat.com/security/ db42a60e.txt. It is also located on your system when your distribution is installed at /usr/share/ rhn/RPM-GPG-KEY. To add a public key the RPM keyring, you use the rpm --import command. So, to add the Red Hat public key, enter the following: puppy# rpm --import /usr/share/rhn/RPM-GPG-KEY You can also download the public key from a keyserver using the gpg command and then place it in the RPM keyring. To do this, you first need to use the gpg command to get the key, specifying a keyserver and a key ID. The default keyserver for the Red Hat public key is pgp.mit.edu, and the key ID is DB42A60E.9 Listing 1-47 retrieves the Red Hat public key from a keyserver using the gpg command. Listing 1-47. Using the gpg Command to Download a Key from a Keyserver puppy# gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys DB42A60E gpg: requesting key DB42A60E from HKP keyserver pgp.mit.edu gpg: key DB42A60E: public key imported gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: imported: 1 As you can see from Listing 1-47, you have successfully downloaded the Red Hat public key from the key server and imported it into the GPG keyring. Now you need to add it to the RPM keyring. You can enter the following: puppy# gpg -a --export DB42A60E > redhat.asc; rpm --import redhat.asc; \ rm -f redhat.asc In the previous line you have exported the key you just downloaded into the GPG keyring by selecting it via its key ID and using the -a option to create ASCII armored output. You then imported the resulting file into the RPM keyring and finally deleted the file you just used for the import. You can see all the public keys stored in your RPM public keyring using the following command: puppy# rpm -qa gpg-pubkey\* --qf "%{version}-%{release} %{summary}\n" db42a60e-37ea5438 gpg(Red Hat, Inc <security@redhat.com>) As you can see, the only key you have is the Red Hat security key.
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