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CHAPTER 7 MANY-VALUED ASSOCIATIONS
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<key column="BOOK_ID" /> <one-to-many class="7_1" /> </set> </class> </hibernate-mapping> The foreign key BOOK_ID has two representations in memory: the Book property of and the element of the chapters collection held by Book. Suppose you add a chapter to a book object. Also say you haven t initially set inverse="true", and you established bidirectionality as follows: chapter.setBook(book); book.gets().add(chapter); If you save the chapter object, two SQL statements are executed, because Hibernate doesn t know that the mapping of BOOK_ID in the book and chapter mapping files refers to the same database column. The SQL statements executed are shown here: insert into BookShop7.CHAPTER7_1 (title, NUM_OF_PAGES, book_id, id) values ( , , , ) update BookShop7.CHAPTER7_1 set BOOK_ID= where id= Now, add inverse="true". When you save the chapter, you see that only one insert on the chapter is executed. This is because you tell Hibernate that BOOK_ID is the same in both mapping files. In JPA, the class is as follows: @Entity (name="chapter") @Table (name="7_1", schema="BOOKSHOP") public class 7_1 { @Id @GeneratedValue (strategy=GenerationType.TABLE) @Column (name="id") private long id; @ManyToOne @JoinColumn (name="book_id") private Book7_1 book; @Column (name="title") private String title; @Column (name="NUM_OF_PAGES") private int numOfPages; // getters and setters } In annotations, the inverse attribute is replaced by the mappedBy attribute: @Entity (name="bkch2") @Table (name="BOOK7_1", schema="BOOKSHOP") public class Book7_1 {
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@Id @GeneratedValue (strategy=GenerationType.TABLE) @Column (name="BOOK_ID") private long book_id; @Column (name="ISBN") private String isbn; @Column (name="book_Name") private String bookName; /*@Column (name="publisher_code") String publisherCode;*/ @Column (name="publish_date") private Date publishDate; @Column (name="price") private Long price; @OneToMany(targetEntity=7_1.class,mappedBy="book") @JoinColumn(name="BOOK_ID") @Cascade (value={CascadeType.SAVE_UPDATE,CascadeType.DELETE_ORPHAN}) Set chapters; // getters and setters }
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7.3 Mapping a One-to-Many Bidirectional Association Using a Join Table
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How do you map objects using a one-to-many association with a join table
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Remember that you can use a join table for a many-to-one association and also for a one-to-many association. You can do so by using a <many-to-many> association type and marking unique="true".
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One book object can relate to many chapter objects, so the association from Book to is one-tomany. You first define this association as unidirectional navigable from book to chapter only and then extend it to be bidirectional.
CHAPTER 7 MANY-VALUED ASSOCIATIONS
The Book mapping is as follows: <hibernate-mapping package="com.hibernaterecipes.chapter7"> <class name="Book7_3" table="BOOK7_3" schema="BookShop7"> <id name="book_id" column="BOOK_ID" type="long"> <generator class="native"> </generator> </id> <property name="isbn" type="string" column="ISBN" /> <property name="bookName" type="string" column="BOOK_NAME" /> <property name="publishDate" type="date" column="PUBLISH_DATE" /> <property name="price" type="long" column="PRICE" /> <set name="chapters" table="BOOK_CHAPTER" schema="BookShop7" cascade="saveupdate,delete-orphan"> <key column="BOOK_ID" /> <many-to-many column="CHAPTER_ID" class="7_3" unique="true"/> </set> </class> </hibernate-mapping> The join table BOOK_CHAPTER is defined as the collection table. BOOK_ID and CHAPTER_ID form the composite primary key of the join table. Instead of one-to-many, you need to use the <many-to-many> element, because one-to-many doesn t know about join tables. By setting the unique attribute to true, you say that one Book can have a only once (determined by the hashCode() and equals() methods), and you indirectly implement a one-to-many association. Using JPA annotations, the Book class is mapped as follows. Note that the mappedby attribute isn t set because this is a unidirectional example. Also, doesn t have an instance of Book: @Entity (name="bkch73") @Table (name="BOOK7_3", schema="BOOKSHOP7") public class Book7_3 { @Id @GeneratedValue (strategy=GenerationType.TABLE) @Column (name="BOOK_ID") private long book_id; @Column (name="ISBN") private String isbn; @Column (name="book_Name") private String bookName; /*@Column (name="publisher_code") String publisherCode;*/ @Column (name="publish_date") private Date publishDate; @Column (name="price")
CHAPTER 7 MANY-VALUED ASSOCIATIONS
private Long price; @OneToMany(targetEntity=7_3.class) @JoinTable(name = "Book_",schema="BOOKSHOP7", joinColumns = { @JoinColumn(name="book_id") } ) @Cascade (value={CascadeType.SAVE_UPDATE,CascadeType.DELETE_ORPHAN}) private Set chapters; // getters and setters } If you want to make a bidirectional one-to-many/many-to-one association using a join table, you can define the many-to-one end the same way as before. It s important to note that you should mark one end of the bidirectional association as inverse. This time, you make the end inverse, but it s OK to choose the other end: <hibernate-mapping package="com.hibernaterecipes.chapter7"> <class name="7_3" table="CHAPTER7_3" dynamic-insert="true" update="true" schema="BookShop7"> <id name="id" column="id" type="long"> <generator class="native"> </generator> </id> <property name="title" type="string" column="title" /> <property name="noOfPages" type="int" column="NUM_OF_PAGES" /> <join schema="BookShop7"> null="true" /> </join> </class> </hibernate-mapping> In JPA, you update the Book class with the mappedBy attribute: @Entity (name="bkch73") @Table (name="BOOK7_3", schema="BOOKSHOP7") public class Book7_3 { . . . . . table="BOOK_CHAPTER" optional="true" dynamic-
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column="BOOK_ID"
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