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The GP2D12 has a tiny connector known as a JST. Make sure that you order the matching prewired connector when you order the sensor. Although it s possible to solder directly to the connector, we wouldn t recommend it. The three pins in the connector are laid out as shown in Figure 8-17, but you probably need to use this only if the prewired connector you buy is not color-coded. Otherwise, use Table 8-1 and Figure 8-18 to build the interface.
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Figure 8-17. GP2D12 outline and pin out Table 8-1. Connections for the GP2D12
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Figure 8-18. Transistor buffer for the GP2D12 interface
CHAPTER 8 4.3V POWERED SENSORS
Operation of the Sensor
When you use the infrared rangefinder, configure the sensor input port to be an NXT Light Sensor. The reading will be in the Percent scale, and the value will range from 30 for a distance of about 4 inches (10cm) to 100 for a distance of 31 inches (80cm). As you can see in the plot in Figure 8-19, the value is not linear with distance. Nobody seems to know exactly why, but at distances shorter than 4 inches (10cm), the relationship actually reverses and the Percent values increase.
Figure 8-19. Plot of distance and Percent value
Note The pulsing of the LED creates a lot of electrical noise in the NXT. You can t hear it, but the LEGO Sound
Sensor picks it up through its power supply connection. The Sound Sensor picks up so much noise this way, it s essentially useless. There doesn t seem to be any practical way to allow the two sensors to coexist when connected to the same NXT.
Wall Follower
Wall following is a basic function for maze-running robots. The NXT Quick Start robot is the ideal platform, and the infrared rangefinder is the ideal sensor for the task. The mounting holes on the GP2D12 are the wrong size and spacing to mount directly to Technic beams. However, you can arrange four Technic double-axle rubber joiners as in Figure 8-20 to give the right amount of compliance to hold the sensor tightly to the side of a bent lift arm beam. The GP2D12 s mounting ears slip perfectly between the beam and the axles. The sensor is tilted back so it looks ahead of the robot.
CHAPTER 8 4.3V POWERED SENSORS
Figure 8-20. Wall follower The NXT-G program is shown in Figure 8-21. A Move block makes programming the wall follower easy because it has a single steering command that simultaneously controls two motors. It turns by an amount proportional to the steering command, with zero going straight. The desired distance to the wall, in this case 90, is subtracted from the distance reading, and it becomes the steering command value. The value of the sensor is also displayed for debugging.
Figure 8-21. NXT-G wall follower program
Differential Light Sensor
Occasionally, the measurement you really need is the difference between two levels, not the levels themselves. Measuring the two levels and calculating the difference in software not only uses two input ports but can also limit the accuracy of the result. For example, suppose that you just want to know the difference in the amount of light in two places. The overall range of light levels could be huge, but the range of conversion is limited. The difference between a light reading of 85 and 90 is a big difference in light level, but would be numerically only 5. One way around this problem is to design a sensor that subtracts the difference before the conversion.
CHAPTER 8 4.3V POWERED SENSORS
Cadmium Sulfide LDRs are resistors that change in value with the light level (refer to 5). If you put a voltage across two identical LDRs in series (see Figure 8-22), the center connection will be exactly half of the voltage. As long as the amount of light is the same, the voltage will always be half. If one sensor receives less light, its resistance will increase, and the center voltage will move proportionally.
Figure 8-22. Differential Light Sensor circuit diagram It would be nice just to hook this center point up to the sensor input of the NXT, but there would be a problem: the 10k pull-up resistor inside the NXT would throw everything off. In low light conditions, the LDRs would each have a resistance of around 100k . Being 10 times smaller, the 10k would dominate the resistance, and you would mostly measure it, not the LDRs. So, you need to use a transistor buffer again.
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