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CHAPTER 9
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Two-Wire Powered Sensors
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The original LEGO MINDSTORMS brick, the RCX, used a two-wire powered sensor interface. The NXT has a backward compatibility mode with the old RCX sensors, and that mode offers some advantages for homebrew sensors that need higher voltages than the 4.3V supply described in 8. It s a natural choice for sensors that need to take full advantage of the 5V analog-to-digital conversion. Conveniently, the two wires are the same two wires you already used for passive sensors: the white and black wires in the NXT cable, or pins 1 and 2 on the port connector.
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Power and sensor readings are combined on two wires by splitting the functions in time. First, the sensor signal is read, with exactly the same method as the passive sensors described in s 4 through 7, except the signal is read only during a short 0.1ms window of time. After that, power is applied to the two wires for about 3ms. Figure 9-1 graphically shows the timing, but the passive time interval is much shorter than the power. The NXT keeps cycling between these two intervals as long as the port is configured as a two-wire powered sensor.
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Figure 9-1. Timing for the two-wire powered sensor (not drawn to scale) Figure 9-2 shows a minimal two-wire powered sensor. Diode D1 separates the power part of the cycle from the passive. Diodes act like one-way valves for current, and (oriented in the direction shown) D1 conducts only when the NXT voltage is greater than the voltage on C1. The diode symbol
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CHAPTER 9 TWO-WIRE POWERED SENSORS
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looks like an arrow pointing at a line, and the line end of the part is called the cathode. The physical part has a line painted on the cathode end, too. The other end is called the anode. With new batteries, the voltage on C1 approaches 9V, but with weak ones it might only be 6V. Either way, it will always be greater than the 5V used by the NXT to read the sensor.
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Figure 9-2. Minimal two-wire powered sensor The large triangle symbol in the circuit is an operational amplifier, or op-amp for short. There are many kinds of op-amp, but the pin numbers in Figure 9-2 correspond to the LM324. Actually, the LM324 contains 4 op-amps like this in the same 14-pin package. Explaining exactly how an op-amp works is beyond the scope of this book, but basically it s an amplifier whose output is on the corner of the triangle on the left. The NXT reads whatever voltage the op-amp output has through resistor R1. Remember that the NXT has a 10k resistor pulling the white wire up to 5V. If the op-amp output is 0V, then the voltage the NXT reads will be the result of a voltage divider R1, which is 1k , and the internal 10k resistor to 5V. That results in 0.45V, or a Raw value of 93. If the op-amp output is 5V, the NXT input voltage will also be 5V, which results in a Raw value of 1,023. So, at best, this sensor creates Raw values between 93 and 1,023. Op-amps such as the LM324 can bring their outputs down to only about 0.65V, so the low end of the range is actually limited to something like 214. General instructions for building this type of sensor are given in Appendix A.
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Power Supply
The power capability of the two-wire power supply can be seen in Figure 9-3. Getting 9V depends on the condition of the batteries and the amount of load. You can draw up to 14 mA before the voltage rapidly falls off. This is a generous amount of current, considering that the LM324 requires only about 1.5 mA, but you still need to be careful with overall sensor power. You can use up the entire 14 mA with only a 650 load to ground.
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